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1926–Actress, Marilyn Monroe, is born Norma Jean Baker in Los Angeles, California. Her mother was committed to a state mental hospital when she was very young, leaving Norma Jean to spend several years in foster homes and in an orphanage. As a young woman, she posed nude for a calendar photograph, which ended up on the cover of the first Playboy magazine. When she signed a contract with 20th Century Fox, she took the name Marilyn Monroe. She is haled as the biggest sex symbol of all time, but she was also a fine actress. She appeared in the films Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, Some Like It Hot, The River of No Return, Bus Stop, The Seven Year Itch, and The Misfits.



BC 1279–Ramesses II (The Great) becomes Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt in the 19th Dynasty.

BC 195–Emperor Gaozu of Han dies in Changle Palace at age 60.

193–After only three months on the throne, Roman Emperor, Didius Julianus, is assassinated by the Praetorian Guard at age 60.

987–Hugh Capet is elected King of France.

1076–Mstislav I of Kiev is born in Turov. He figures prominently in the Norse Sagas under the name Harald, taken to allude to his grandfather, Harold II of England.

1215–Beijing, under the control of the Jurchen ruler, Emperor Xuanzong of Jin, is captured by the Mongols under Genghis Khan.

1252–Alfonso X is proclaimed king of Castile and León.

1298–Residents of Riga and Grand Duchy of Lithuania defeat the Livonian Order in the Battle of Turaida.

1455–Anne of Savoy is born. She was a member of the House of Savoy, and through her mother Yolande of France, she was a granddaughter of King Charles VII of France.

1495–The first written record of Scotch Whiskey appears in the Exchequer Rolls of Scotland. Friar John Cor is the distiller.

1533–Anne Boleyn is crowned Queen of England.

1535–Combined forces loyal to Charles V attack and expel the Ottomans from Tunis during the Conquest of Tunis.

1599–The Archbishop of Canterbury orders the burning of works by Christopher Marlowe and others in front of St. Paul's Cathedral.

1633–Astronomer, Geminiano Montanari, is born in Modena, Italy. A crater on the Moon, at 45.8S, 20.6W, is named after him.

1638–The first earthquake recorded in the U.S. is at Plymouth, Massachusetts.

1648–The Roundheads defeat the Cavaliers at the Battle of Maidstone in the Second English Civil War.

1649–Filipinos, led by Agustin Sumuroy, revolt against Spanish colonial authorities in Nortnern Samar.

1657–The first Quakers arrive in New Amsterdam.

1660–Mary Dyer is hanged for defying a law banning Quakers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

1662–Chinese Emperor, Zhu Youlang, is strangled to death by General Wu Sangui in Yunnanfu, Yunnan, at age 38.

1670–In Dover, England, Charles II of Great Britain and Louis XIV of France sign the Secret Treaty of Dover, which will force England into the Third Anglo-Dutch War.

1679–The Scottish Covenanters defeat John Graham of Claverhouse at the Battle of Drumclog.

1779–Benedict Arnold, a General in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, is court-martialed for malfeasance.

1792–Kentucky becomes the 15th state of the United States of America.

1794–The battle of the Glorious First of June, the first naval engagement between Britain and France during the French Revolutionary Wars, is fought.

1796–Tennessee becomes the 16th state of the United States of America.

1801–Religious leader, Brigham Young, is born in Whitingham, Vermont. He was the second President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. He founded Salt Lake City, Utah, and he served as the first governor of the Utah Territory. Young also led the foundings of the precursors to the University of Utah and Brigham Young University.

1812–President James Madison asks the U.S. Congress to declare war on the United Kingdom.

1813–James Lawrence, the mortally-wounded commander of the USS Chesapeake, gives his final order: "Don't give up the ship!"

1830–Religious leader, Swaminarayan, dies in Gadhada (present-day Gujarat, India), at age 49. Swaminarayan had an estimated 1.8 million followers when he died. By 2007, he had an estimated of 20 million followers.

1831–James Clark Ross discovers the North Magnetic Pole.

1841–Chef, Nicolas Appert, dies in Massy, France, at age 91. He was a confectioner and the inventor of canning.

1846–Pope Gregory XVI dies of erysipelas in Rome, Papal States, at age 80.

1855–American adventurer, William Walker, conquers Nicaragua.

1857–Charles Baudelaire's Les Fleurs du mal is published.

1861–The Battle of Fairfax Court House, the first land battle of the American Civil War after the Battle of Fort Sumter, produces the first Confederate combat casualty.

1868–The Treaty of Bosque Redondo is signed allowing the Navajos to return to their lands in Arizona and New Mexico.

1868–James Buchanan, the 15th President of the United States, dies near Lancaster, Pennsylvania.

1872–Publisher, James Gordon Bennett, Sr., dies in New York, New York, at age 76. He founded The New York Herald.

1879–Napoléon Eugène, the last dynastic Bonaparte, is killed in the Anglo-Zulu War.

1880–The first pay telephone is installed.

1887–Outlaw, Ike Clanton, dies of a gunshot wound in Springerville, Arizona Territory, at age 40. He was fleeing from a lawman seeking to arrest him for cattle-rustling. He was a member of a loosely associated group of outlaws known as the The Cowboys that had ongoing conflicts with Doc Holliday and lawmen Wyatt, Virgil, and Morgan Earp. On October 26, 1881, Ike was present at the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral in Tombstone, Arizona Territory, but was unarmed and ran from the gunfight.

1888–California gets its first seismograph for measuring earthquakes.

1890–The U.S. Census Bureau begins using Herman Hollerith's tabulating machine to count census returns.

1890–Actor, Frank Morgan, is born Francis P. Wupperman in New York, New York. He appeared in the films The Wizard of Oz, Affairs of Cellini, and Annie Get Your Gun.

1892–Amanullah Khan, Emir-King of Afghanistan (1919-1928), is born in Paghman, Emirate of Afghanistan.

1898–The Trans-Mississippi International Exposition opens in Omaha, Nebraska.

1905–The Lewis & Clark Centennial Exposition opens in Portland, Oregon.

1909–The Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition opens in Seattle, Washington.

1910–Robert Falcon Scott's second South Pole expedition leaves Cardiff, Wales.

1912–American architect and urban planner, Daniel Hudson Burnham, dies in Heidelberg, Germany, at age 65. Burnham was the designer of New York's
Flatiron Building.

1913–The Greek-Serbian Treaty of Alliance is signed, paving the way for the Second Balkan War.

1915–Character actor, John Randolph, is born Emanuel Hirsch Cohen in New York, New York. Randolph was cast in dozens of TV shows from the 1950s to the 1990s. He was one of the last blacklisted actors to regain employment in Hollywood films when director, John Frankenheimer, cast him in a major role in the film Seconds in 1966. He appeared in the films Pretty Poison, Gaily, Gaily, There Was a Crooked Man..., Escape from the Planet of the Apes, Serpico, King Kong, Heaven Can Wait, Frances, Prizzi’s Honor, and You’ve Got Mail.

1916–Louis Brandeis becomes the first Jew appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court.

1921–A race riot takes place in Tulsa, Oklahoma, with 21 whites and 60 blacks killed.

1921–Orchestra leader and jazz arranger, Nelson Riddle, is born Nelson Smock Riddle, Jr. in Oradell, New Jersey. His work for Capitol Records helped to make vocalists Frank Sinatra, Ella Fitzgerald, Nat King Cole, Judy Garland, Dean Martin, Peggy Lee, Johnny Mathis, Rosemary Clooney, and Keely Smith household names. He found commercial and critical success again in the 1980s, with a trio of platinum albums with Linda Ronstadt.

1922–The Royal Ulster Constabulary is founded. It was the police force in Northern Ireland from 1922 to 2001. At its peak the force had around 8,500 officers, with 4,500 others who were members of the RUC Reserve. During the Troubles, 319 members of the RUC were killed and almost 9,000 were injured in paramilitary assassinations or attacks, mostly by the Provisional IRA. This made the RUC the most dangerous police force in the world in which to serve.

1925–Lake Winnie Amusement Park in Chattanooga, Tennessee, opens with 5,000 visitors. The park features a swimming pool, bumper cars, the Fly-O-Plane ride, the Cake House, the Lake Winnepesaukah Show Boat, and the Mad Mouse Rollercoaster. Carl O. Dixon and his wife, Minette, purchased the lake property with visions of creating a family swimming and picnicking park. They renamed the lake Winnepesaukah after a Native American word meaning “bountiful waters” or “beautiful lake of the highlands.”

1926–Actor, Andy (Samuel) Griffith, is born in Mount Airy, North Carolina. He is best known for his starring roles in two TV series: The Andy Griffith Show and Matlock. He appeared in the films A Face in the Crowd, No Time for Sergeants, Onionhead, The Second Time Around, Angel in My Pocket, Hearts of the West, and Rustlers’ Rhapsody.

1926–Actress, Marilyn Monroe, is born Norma Jean Baker in Los Angeles, California. Her mother was committed to a state mental hospital when she was very young, leaving Norma Jean to spend several years in foster homes and in an orphanage. As a young woman, she posed nude for a calendar photograph, which ended up on the cover of the first Playboy magazine. When she signed a contract with 20th Century Fox, she took the name Marilyn Monroe. She is haled as the biggest sex symbol of all time, but she was also a fine actress. She appeared in the films The Asphalt Jungle, All About Eve, Don’t Bother to Knock, Monkey Business, Niagra, Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, How to Marry a Millionaire, River of No Return, There’s No Business Like Show Business, The Seven Year Itch, Bus Stop, The Prince and the Showgirl, Some Like It Hot, Let’s Make Love, and The Misfits. She was married to baseball player, Joe DiMagio, and writer, Arthur Miller.

1926–Character actor, Aubrey Morris, is born Aubrey Steinberg in Portsmouth, Hampshire, England. He appeared in the TV shows Tales from the Crypt, The Prisoner, The Saint, The Avengers, Babylon 5, and It’s Always Sunny in Philadelphia. He appeared in the films Night Caller from Outer Space, Up the Junction, If It’s Tuesday, This Must Be Belgium, A Clockwork Orange, The Wicker Man, Love and Death, Lisztomania, and Oxford Blues.

1927–Accused axe murderess, Lizzie Borden, dies of pneumonia in Fall River, Massachusetts, at age 66. Following her release from the prison in which she had been held during the trial, Borden chose to remain a resident of her birthplace for the rest of her life, despite facing significant ostracism.

1929–The first Conference of the Communist Parties of Latin America is held in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

1930–Actor, Ty Hardin, is born Orison Whipple Hungerford, Jr. in New York, New York. He appeared in the films I Married a Monster from Outer Space, Merrill’s Marauders, The Chapman Report, PT 109, Wall of Noise, Palm Springs Weekend, Battle of the Bulge, and Berserk.

1930–Actor, Edward Woodward, is born Edward Albert Arthur Woodward in Croydon, Surrey, England. He appeared in the films Becket, Young Winston, The Wicker Man, Breaker Morant, The Appointment, Champions, A Christmas Carol, and King David.

1933–The Century of Progress World's Fair opens in Chicago, Illinois.

1933–Actor, Charlie Chaplin, marries actress, Paulette Goddard.

1934–Singer, Pat Boone, is born Charles Eugene Boone in Jacksonville, Florida. He started out doing covers of black rock and roller’s songs, such as Ain’t That a Shame and Tuti Fruiti. He then moved on to his unique smooth style with the hits,I Almost Lost My Mind, Friendly Persuasion, Why Baby Why, Love Letters in the Sand, April Love, Bernardine, and Moody River. As an actor, he appeared in the films Bernardine, April Love, Mardi Gras, Journey to the Center of the Earth, All Hands on Deck, State Fair, The Horror of It All, Goodbye Charlie, The Greatest Story Ever Told, The Perils of Pauline, and The Cross and the Switchblade. His daughter is singer, Debbie Boone.

1935–A driver’s test and auto license plates are introduced in England.

1936–Artist, Gerald Anthony Scarfe, is born in St. John's Wood, London, England. He was a cartoonist and illustrator. He worked as editorial cartoonist for The Sunday Times and illustrator for The New Yorker. He was married to actress, Jane Asher.

1937–Actor, Morgan Freeman, is born in Memphis, Tennessee. He appeared in the films Brubaker, Eyewitness, Harry & Son, Teachers, Marie, That Was Then... This Is Now, Street Smart, Clean and Sober, Lean on Me, Driving Miss Daisy, Glory, Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves, The Power of One, Unforgiven, The Shawshank Redemption, Chain Reaction, Amistad, Deep Impact, The Sum of all Fears, Bruce Almighty, Under Suspicion, Million Dollar Baby, An Unfinished Life, The Bucket List, The Dark Knight, Oblivion, and Last Vegas.

1937–Author, Colleen McCullough, is born in Wellington, Australia. Her best known works are The Thorn Birds and Tim.

1938–Superman Comics is launched.

1939–The first televised heavyweight boxing match is between Max Baer and Lou Nova.

1939–Actor, Cleavon (Jake) Little, is born in Chickasha, Oklahoma. He appeared in the films John and Mary, Cotton Comes to Harlem, Vanishing Point, Blazing Saddles, Greased Lightning, FM, Scavenger Hunt, Toy Soldiers, Once Bitten, and Fletch Lives.

1940–Actor, René (Murat) Auberjonois, is born in New York, New York. He is best known for his role on the TV sitcom Benson. He appeared in the films M*A*S*H, Brewster Mcloud, McCabe & Mrs. Miller, Pete ‘n’ Tillie, The Hindenburg, The Big Bus, King Kong, Eyes of Laura Mars, Where the Buffalo Roam, The Fued, The Ballad of Little Joe, and The Patriot.

1941–The Farhud, a violent dispossession of Iraqi Jews, takes place in Baghdad, Iraq. The violence comes immediately after the rapid defeat by the British of Rashid Ali, whose earlier coup had generated a short period of national euphoria, and was charged by allegations that Iraqi Jews had aided the British. Over 180 Jews are killed and 1,000 others are injured, and up to 400 non-Jewish rioters are killed in an attempt to quell the violence. Looting of Jewish property takes place, and 900 Jewish homes are destroyed.

1941–Actress, Gene Tierney, marries fashion designer, Oleg Cassini.

1942–Producer, director, and screenwriter, Tom Mankiewicz, is born Thomas Frank Mankiewicz in Los Angeles, California. His films include The Sweet Ride, Diamonds Are Forever, Live and Let Die, Mother, Jugs and Speed, The Cassandra Crossing, The Eagle Has Landed, Superman, Ladyhawke, Dragnet, and Delirious. In his autobiography he told of affairs with actresses Suzy Kendall, Carol Lynley, Tuesday Weld, Diane Cilento, Elizabeth Ashley, Jean Simmons, Stefanie Powers, and Margot Kidder.

1943–Graphic artist, Alan Aldridge, is born in London, England. He is best known for his art work in the book The Beatles Illustrated Lyrics. During the 1960s and 1970s, he was responsible for a great many album covers, and helped create the graphic style of that era.

1943–Actor, Leslie Howard, dies at age 50, when a civilian flight from Lisbon, Spain to London, England, is shot down by the Germans, killing all on board. It is thought that this may have been an attempt to kill British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill. Howard is best known for the role of Ashley Wilkes in Gone with the Wind. He also appeared in the films Smilin’ Through, The Animal Kingdom, Berkeley Square, The Lady is Willing, Of Human Bondage, The Scarlet Pimpernel, The Petrified Forest, Pygmalion, and Intermezzo.

1945–Singer, Linda Scott, is born Linda Joy Sampson in New York, New York. She had a big hit with I’ve Told Every Little Star.

1946–Ion Antonescu, "Conducator" (or leader) of Romania during World War II, is executed in Jilava, Ilfov County, Romania, at age 63.

1947–Actor, Jonathan Pryce, is born John Price in Carmel, Flintshire, Wales. He appeared in the films Something Wicked This Way Comes, The Ploughman's Lunch, Brazil, Haunted Honeymoon, The Adventures of Baron Munchausen, The Rachel Papers, Glengarry Glen Ross, Carrington, Evita, The Affair of the Necklace, De-Lovely, Bedtime Stories, and Hysteria.

1947–Ron Wood, of The Rolling Stones, is born in Hillingdon, London. Not an original member of the band, he was a replacement for Brian Jones.

1947–The Atomic Energy Commission is established.

1948–Actor, Powers (Allen) Boothe, is born in Snyder, Texas. He is best known for the role of Jim Jones in Guyana Tragedy: The Story of Jim Jones. He appeared in the films The Goodbye Girl, Cruising, Southern Comfort, Red Dawn, Extreme Prejudice, Tombstone, Blue Sky, Nixon, Con Air, U Turn, Men of Honor, and Frailty.

1948–Bluesman, Sonny Boy Williamson, dies during a robbery in Chicago, Illinois, at age 34. He was killed on Chicago's South Side, as he walked home from a performance at The Plantation Club, a tavern just a block and a half away from his home. Williamson's final words are reported to have been "Lord have mercy." He is often regarded as the pioneer of the blues harp as a solo instrument, and he played on hundreds of blues recordings for many pre-World War II blues artists. His popular songs include Good Morning, School Girl, Sugar Mama, Early in the Morning, and Stop Breaking Down.

1949–Actress, Lucille Ball, and bandleader, Desi Arnaz, marry for the second time.

1950–Republican Senator, Margaret Chase Smith, denounces the tactics of her colleague Joseph McCarthy by labeling the “Four Horsemen of Calumny” as Fear, Ignorance, Bigotry, and Smear. The next day she was replaced on the Senate's Special Investigation Committee by Richard Nixon. McCarthy was going after Communists in the government and the entertainment industry.

1953–David (Richard) Berkowitz, the “Son of Sam” serial killer, is born in Brooklyn, New York.

1953–Ronnie (Gene) Dunn, of Brooks & Dunn, is born in Coleman, Texas.

1956–Doris Day signs a major five-year, million-dollar recording contract with Columbia Records.

1956–Actress, Lisa Hartman, is born in Houston, Texas. She is best known for her role on the TV drama series Knotts Landing. She appeared in the films Just Tell Me You Love Me, Deadly Blessing, Where the Boys Are ‘84, and Back to You and Me. She is married to country singer, Clint Black.

1958–Charles de Gaulle comes out of retirement to lead France by decree for six months.

1959–BBC-TV's Juke Box Jury series debuts. It is a panel show where guest stars review and rate the latest record releases.

1960–New Zealand's first official television broadcast commences at 7:30 p.m. from Auckland.

1961–FM radio multiplex stereo broadcasting is introduced in New York, California, and Illinois.

1961–The 34th National Spelling Bee: John Capehart wins, spelling smaragdine.

1962–The Pilkington Committee on Broadcasting determines that the British public does not want commercial radio broadcasting.

1962–Adolf Eichmann is executed by hanging at a prison in Ramla, Israel, at age 56. He was found guilty of crimes against humanity, war crimes, and crimes against Poles, Slovenes, and Gypsies. He was also found guilty of membership in three organisations that had been deemed criminal at the Nuremberg trials: the Gestapo, the SD, and the SS. When considering the sentence, the judges concluded that Eichmann had not merely been following orders, but believed in the Nazi cause wholeheartedly and had been a key perpetrator of the genocide during World War II.

1963–Kenya gains internal self-rule.

1964–The Rolling Stones visit America for the first time.

1965–An explosion at Fukuoka, Japan, kills 237 coal miners.

1965–Art Garfunkel graduates with a Master's Degree in Mathematics from Columbia University in New York.

1967–The Beatles release the album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. It is certified gold for sales on its first day in the stores.

1968–Guitarist, Dave Mason, rejoins Traffic after quitting the band six months earlier.

1968–A chart topper: Mrs. Robinson by Simon & Garfunkel.

1968–Author and lecturer, Helen Keller, dies in her sleep at her home, Arcan Ridge, in Easton, Connecticut, at age 87. She was the first deaf and blind person to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree. The story of how her teacher, Anne Sullivan, broke through the isolation imposed by a near complete lack of language, allowing the girl to blossom as she learned to communicate, has become widely known through the dramatic depictions of the play and film The Miracle Worker. A member of the Socialist Party of America and the Industrial Workers of the World, she campaigned for women's suffrage, labor rights, socialism, and other similar causes. Her birthplace is now a museum.

1969–Tobacco advertising is banned on Canadian radio and TV.

1969–Actress, Teri Polo, is born Theresa Elizabeth Polo in Dover, Delaware. She appeared in the films Mystery Date, Aspen Extreme, The Huse of the Spirits, Meet the Parents, Straight From the Heart, Meet the Fockers, 2:13, and The Hole.

1970–A chart topper: Everything Is Beautiful by Ray Stevens.

1971–The modest house in Tupelo, Mississippi, in which Elvis Presley was born, is opened as a tourist attraction.

1971–Singer, Harry Nilsson, begins recording his album Nilsson Schmilsson in London, England.

1971–The Ed Sullivan Show is aired for the final time, ending an era that brought an amazing amount of talent to the attention of the American public.

1973–Supermodel, Heidi Klum, is born in Bergisch Gladbach, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. She created the fashion competition TV series Project Runway. She was married to singer, Seal.

1973–Harvey S. Firestone, Jr., U.S. tire manufacturer, dies in Akron, Ohio, at age 75. He took over the leadership of the Firestone Tire and Rubber Company in 1941, and helped establish the company's supply and service stores, guiding its operations during World War II.

1974–The Heimlich Maneuver for rescuing choking victims is published in the journal Emergency Medicine.

1974–Singer, Alanis (Nadine) Morissette, is born in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. She had the hit songs You Ought to Know and Ironic. She is married to rapper, Mario “Souleye” Treadway.

1977–John Lennon, Yoko Ono, and their toddler son, Sean, travel to Japan, where they will remain for five months.

1978–The first international applications under the Patent Cooperation Treaty are filed.

1978–At the Plaza Hotel in New York City, John Lennon and Yoko Ono visit Ronnie Wood and Charlie Watts of The Rolling Stones. The Lennons bring along a bottle of Scotch for Ronnie, as today is his birthday, but the Stone’s guitarist doesn’t have a chance to chat with John, as the former Beatle spends most of the evening asleep on the bed.

1979–Intel introduces the 8088 processor.

1979–The first black-led government of Rhodesia (present-day Zimbabwe) in 90 years takes power.

1979–The 33rd NBA Championship: The Sea Supersonics beat the Washington Bullets, 4 games to 1.

1979–Lexicographer, Eric Partridge, dies in Moretonhampstead, Devon, England, at age 85. He wrote a number of books on the English language including A Dictionary of Catch Phrases, A Dictionary of Clichés, Routledge Dictionary of Historical Slang, and A Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English.

1980–Ted Turner's Cable News Network (CNN) begins broadcasting.

1980–Market analyst, Arthur Nielsen, dies in Chicago, Illinois, at age 82. He founded the ACNielsen company. He was a pioneer in developing methods of measuring the audience of radio and television broadcasting programs, most notably the Nielsen ratings.

1981–Comedienne and actress, Amy (Beth) Schumer, is born in Manhattan, New York. She starred of the sketch comedy series, Inside Amy Schumer, which debuted on Comedy Central in 2013. She appeared in the films Sleepwalk wth Me, Price Check, Seeking a Friend for the End of the World, and Trainwreck.

1985–Actor, Richard Greene, dies of cardiac arrest in Norfolk, England, at age 67. He starred in the popular 1950s TV series The Adventures of Robin Hood. He appeared in the films The Hound of the Baskervilles, Stanley and Livingstone, Forever Amber, The Desert Hawk, and Lorna Doone.

1989–The 62nd National Spelling Bee: Scott Isaacs wins, spelling spoliator.

1990–President George H.W. Bush and Russian leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sign a treaty to end chemical weapon production.

1991–The volcano, Mount Pinatubo, in the Philippines, erupts for the first time in 600 years.

1991–Singer, David Ruffin, of The Temptations, dies from an accidental drug overdose in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, at age 50. He was the lead voice on the group’s hits My Girl, Ain't Too Proud to Beg, and I Wish It Would Rain.

1992–The E Lamp (20 year light bulb) is introduced.

1992–The Stanley Cup: The Pittsburgh Penguins beat the Chicago Blackhawks, 4 games to 0.

1993–Thirteen people are killed and 133 others are wounded when Serb mortar shells are fired at a soccer game in Dobrinja, west of Sarajevo.

1994–The FX Channel debuts on cable TV.

1995–The 68th National Spell Bee: Justin Tyler Carroll wins, spelling xanthosis.

1996–Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, sixth President of India, dies of pneumonia in Bangalore, Karnataka, India, at age 83.

1997–The first New York Women’s Film Festival opens.

1997–Nikolai Tikhonov, Soviet Prime Minister (1980-1985), dies a broken man in Moscow, Russia, at age 92.

1999–Shawn Fanning, an 18-year-old Northeastern University dropout, invents the file-sharing program, Napster.

1999–American Airlines Flight 1420 slides and crashes while landing at Little Rock National Airport, killing 11 people on a flight from Dallas, Texas.

1999–Engineer, Christopher Cockerell, dies in Hythe, Hampshire, England, at age 88. He invented the hovercraft.

2000–Beach Boys founder, Brian Wilson, launches his official website with streaming audio feeds of songs from his latest double album, Live at The Roxy Theater.

2000–Musician and composer, Tito Puente, dies of a heart attack in New York, New York, at age 77. He is best known for his dance-oriented mambo and Latin jazz compositions that endured over his 50-year career.

2001–Crown Prince Dipendra of Nepal shoots and kills several members of his family, including his father and mother, King Birendra of Nepal and Queen Aiswarya.

2001–A Hamas suicide bomber kills 21 people at a discotheque in Tel Aviv, Israel.

2001–Cartoonist, Hank Ketcham, dies of prostate cancer in Pebble Beach, California, at age 81. He created the cartoon strip, “Dennis the Menace.”

2003–The People's Republic of China begins filling the reservoir behind the Three Gorges Dam.

2006–The 79th National Spelling Bee: Katharine "Kerry" Close wins, spelling Ursprache.

2006–Restaurateur, Claude Terrail, owner of La Tour d'Argent in Paris, France, dies at age 88.

2007–Jack Kevorkian is released from prison after serving eight years of his 10- to 25-year prison term for second-degree murder. Kevorkian became known as “Doctor Death” for assisting people with suicides.

2007–Smoking is banned in public places in Great Britain.

2008–Fashion designer, Yves Saint Laurent, dies of brain cancer in Paris France, at age 72.

2009–Air France Flight 447 crashes into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Brazil on a flight from Rio de Janeiro to Paris, France. All 228 crew members and passengers are killed.

2009–General Motors files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. It is the fourth largest bankruptcy in U.S. history.

2011–Charles F. McMillan takes charge as 10th Director of the Los Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, succeeding Michael R. Anastasio.

2011–A rare tornado outbreak occurs in New England: four people are killed in Springfield, Massachusetts.

2012–President Barack Obama orders cyber attacks of Stuxnet, against Iran's Natanz Nuclear Facility, code-named Operation Olympic Games.

2014–A bombing at a football field in Mubi, Nigeria, kills at least 40 people.

2014–Actress, Ann B. Davis, dies of a subdural hematoma in San Antonio, Texas, at age 88. She is best known for the role of Alice the housekeeper on the TV sitcom The Brady Bunch. In the 1950s, she co-starred on the TV series The Bob Cummings Show. She appeared in the films All Hands on Deck, Lover Come Back, Naked Gun 33-1/3: The Final Insult, and The Brady Bunch Movie.

2015–Vanity Fair magazine releases its July 2015 cover bearing a photo of Caitlyn Jenner (Bruce Jenner’s transgendered female self). In April, 2015, the former Olympic athlete came out as transgender during an interview with Diane Sawyer.

2015–A ship carrying 458 people capsizes on the Yangtze river in China's Hubei Province, killing 400 people.

2016–The Gotthard Base Tunnel opens after 17 years construction in the Swiss Alps. It is the world's longest and deepest tunnel.

2016–Suspected Neo-Nazis attack people with slabs of meat at a vegan cafe in Tbilisi, Georgia.

2016–A man in Plano, Texas, stabs his girlfriend and posts a picture of her dead body on Facebook. The social media website does not remove the photograph for 36 hours.

2016–Two people are killed in a murder-suicide shooting at the University of California Los Angeles in West Los Angeles, California.


PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Roman Emperor, Didius Julianus; Geminiano Montanari; Brigham Young; William Walker; Frank Morgan; John Randolph; Lake Winne Amusement Park; Marilyn Monroe; Ty Hardin; Pat Boone; an issue of Action Comics; Ron Wood; Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz on their second wedding day; Juke Box Jury; Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band LP cover; Heidi Klum; John Lennon, Yoko Ono, and their toddler son, Sean, in Japan; Mount Pinatubo erupting; Neelam Sanjiva Reddy; Live at The Roxy Theater by Brian Wilson; Claude Terrail; and Ann B. Davis.

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