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2003–After a public outcry (and legal protests from Yoko Ono), Paul McCartney agrees to drop his mission to have certain Beatles songwriting credits reversed to read "McCartney-Lennon." The two songwriters had agreed to the credit of Lennon-McCartney from the start of their youthful partnership back in Liverpool, England. John Lennon never departed from it, going so far as to give the credit Lennon-McCartney to Give Peace a Chance.

455–Vandals enter Rome, and plunder the city for two weeks.

575–Pope Benedict I begins his reign.

657–Pope Eugene I, (654-657), dies in Rome, Byzantine Empire.

1010–The Battle of Aqbat al-Bakr takes place in the context of the Fitna of al-Andalus, resulting in a defeat for the Caliphate of Córdoba.

1098–In the First Crusade, the first Siege of Antioch ends as Crusader forces take the city.

1202–Margaret II, Countess of Flanders, is born.

1202–Margaret II, Countess of Flanders, is born. She was called “the Black” (la Noire) due to her scandalous life

1423–Ferdinand I of Naples is born in the Kingdom of Aragon (present-day Spain).

1535–Pope Leo XI is born Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici in Florence, Duchy of Florence.

1567–Irish King, Shane O'Neill, dies in Cushendun, County Antrim, Northern Ireland, at age 37.

1615–The first Récollet missionaries arrive at Quebec City, Canada, from Rouen, France.

1676––France ensures the supremacy of its naval fleet for the remainder of the Franco-Dutch War with its victory at the Battle of Palermo.

1692–Bridget Bishop is the first person to go to trial in the Salem Witch Trials in Salem, Massachusetts. Found guilty, she is hanged on June 10th.

1731–Martha Washington, the first First Lady (1789-1797) and wife of President George Washington, is born Martha Dandridge in Chestnut Grove Plantation, New Kent County, Virginia, British America.

1740–Count Donatien-Alphonse-Francois de Sade, better known as the Marquis de Sade, is born in Paris, France. He is the first known sadist, with that word coming from his name. His scandalous writings would eventually send him to prison.

1763–At what is now Mackinaw City, Michigan, Chippewas capture Fort Michilimackinac by diverting the garrison's attention with a game of lacrosse, then chasing a ball into the fort.

1774–The Quartering Act is enacted, allowing a governor in colonial America to house British soldiers in uninhabited houses, outhouses, barns, or other buildings if suitable quarters are not provided.

1793–Jean-Paul Marat recites the names of 29 people to the French National Convention. Almost all of these are guillotined, followed by 17,000 more over the course of the next year, during the Reign of Terror.

1805–A Franco-Spanish fleet recaptures Diamond Rock from the British. It is an uninhabited island at the entrance to the bay leading to Fort-de-France.

1835–P.T. Barnum and his circus begins its first tour of the U.S.

1835–1835–Pope Pius X, (1903-1914), is born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto in Riese, Treviso, Lombardy-Venetia, Austrian Empire.

1840–Poet-novelist, Thomas Hardy, is born in Stinsford, Dorchester, Dorset, England. Among his works is Far from the Madding Crowd and Tess of the d'Urbervilles. Hardy's work was admired by many younger writers, including D.H. Lawrence, John Cowper Powys, and Virginia Woolf.

1848–The Slavic congress begins in Prague, Czechoslovakia.

1851–Maine becomes the first state to enact a law prohibiting alcohol.

1855–The Portland Rum Riot occurs in Portland, Maine.

1857–James Gibbs, of Virginia, patents the chain-stitch, single-thread sewing machine.

1857–Composer, Edward William Elgar, is born in Broadheath, England. He wrote Pomp and Circumstance, a piece of classical music that is commonly played at modern day graduation ceremonies.

1866–The Fenians defeat Canadian forces at Ridgeway and Fort Erie.

1883–The "El" train opens to traffic in chicago, Illinois.

1886–U.S. President Grover Cleveland marries Frances Folsom in the White House, becoming the only president to wed in the executive mansion.

1896–Guglieimo Marconi's radio is patented, opening a window for popular music.

1897–Writer, Mark Twain, is quoted by The New York Journal as saying, “The report of my death was an exaggeration.”

1904–Actor, John Weissmuller, is born Peter Johann Weissmüller in Freidorf, Temes County, Kingdom of Hungary, Austro-Hungarian Empire. Weissmuller was one of the world's fastest swimmers in the 1920s, winning five Olympic gold medals for swimming and one bronze medal for water polo. After his swimming career, he became the sixth actor to portray Tarzan, a role he played in 12 films.

1909–Alfred Deakin becomes Prime Minister of Australia for the third time.

1910–Charles Rolls, a co-founder of Rolls-Royce Limited, becomes the first man to make a non-stop double crossing of the English Channel by plane.

1919–Anarchists simultaneously set off bombs in eight separate American cities.

1919–Physicist, Albert Einstein, marries his cousin, Elsa Lowenthal.

1919–The Pulitzer Prizes are awarded. Public Service: The Milwaukee Journal, for its strong and courageous campaign for Americanism in a constituency where foreign elements made such a policy hazardous from a business point of view; Fiction: The Magnificent Ambersons by Booth Tarkington (Doubleday); Biography or Autobiography: The Education of Henry Adams by Henry Adams (Houghton); Poetry: Corn Huskers by Carl Sandburg (Holt) and Old Road to Paradise by Margaret Widdemer (Holt).

1920–The Pulitzer Prizes are awarded. Reporting: John J. Leary, Jr., of New York World, for the series of articles written during the national coal strike in the winter of 1919; Fiction: Beyond the Horizon by Eugene O'Neill (Boni); History: The War with Mexico by Justin Harvey Smith (Macmillan); Biography or Autobiography: The Life of John Marshall by Albert J. Beveridge (Houghton).

1921–Film producer, Alexander Salkind, is born in Freistadt Danzig (present-day Gdansk, Poland). His films include The Three Musketeers, The Four Musketeers, Superman: The Movie, Superman II, Superman III, Supergirl, and Santa Claus: The Movie.

1924–President Calvin Coolidge signs the Indian Citizenship Act into law, granting citizenship to all Native Americans born within the territorial limits of the United States.

1926–Actor, Milo O'Shea, is born in Dublin, Ireland. He appeared in the films Ulysses, Romeo & Juliet, Barbarella, Sacco e Vanzetti, Theatre of Blood, The Verdict, The Purple Rose of Cairo, The Playboys, and Murder in the Heartland.

1928–Velveeta Cheese is formulated by Kraft.

1933–President Franklin Roosevelt authorizes the first swimming pool to be built inside the White House.

1935–Babe Ruth announces his retirement from baseball at age 40.

1936–Actress, Sally (Claire) Kellerman, is born in Long Beach, California. She appeared in the films The Boston Strangler, The April Fools, M*A*S*H, Brooster McCloud, Last of the Red Hot Lovers, Slither, Rafferty and the Gold Dust Twins, Welcome to L.A., A Little Romance, Foxes, Moving Violations, Back to School, That’s Life!, Prêt-à-Porter (Ready to Wear), and Boynton Beach Club.

1941–During World War II, German paratroopers murder Greek civilians in the village of Kondomari.

1941–William Guest, of Gladys Knight & the Pips, is born in Atlanta, Georgia.

1941–Actor, Stacy Keach, is born Walter Stacy Keach, Jr. in Savannah, Georgia. He starred in the TV series Mickey Spillane's Mike Hammer. He appeared in the films The Heart is a Lonely Hunter, Brewster McCloud, The Traveling Executioner, The New Centurions, Fat City, The Life and Times of Judge Roy Bean, Luther, The Squeeze, Gray Lady down, Up in Smoke, The Long Riders, That Championship Season, Escape From L.A., The Sea Wolf, W., The Bourne Legacy, and Nebraska.

1941–Charlie Watts, of The Rolling Stones, is born Charles Robert Watts in London, England. He has remained the drummer of group since its beginning. The “bad boys” of rock and roll have had over 40 big hits, including Satisfaction, Ruby Tuesday, and Honky Tonk Women.

1941–Baseball player, Lou Gehrig, dies of myotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in Riverdale, New York, at age 37. He was a first baseman who played 17 seasons in Major League Baseball for the New York Yankees from 1923 to 1939. In 1939, he was diagnosed with ALS, a disorder now commonly referred to as “Lou Gehrig's disease” in North America. Gehrig was the first MLB player to have his uniform number retired, and he was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1939.

1943–Actor, Charles Haid, is born Charles Maurice Haid III in San Francisco, California. He is best known for his role on the police drama Hill St. Blues. He appeared in the films The Choirboys, Who’ll Stop the Rain, Oliver’s Story, Altered States, Pray TV, and Storyville.

1944–Composer-arranger, Marvin (Frederick) Hamlisch is born in New York, New York. He wrote the music for many films, including Save the Tiger, The Way We Were, The Sting, The Spy Who Loved Me, Same Time, Next Year, Chapter Two, Ordinary People, Sophie’s Choice, Three Men and a Baby, Shirley Valentine, Frankie and Johnny, and The Mirror Has Two Faces. His work on Broadway includes A Chorus Line, They’re Playing Our Song, and The Goodbye Girl.

1945–Film producer, Jon Peters, is born in Van Nuys, California. His films include A Star Is Born, Eyes of Laura Mars, The Main Event, Die Laughing, Caddyshack, An American Wewrewolf in London, Missing, Six Weeks, Flashdance, The Legend of Billie Jean, The Color Purpole, The Witches of Eastwick, Innerspace, Gorillas in the Mist, Rain Man, This Boy’s Life, and With Honors.

1946–In a referendum, Italians vote to turn Italy from a Monarchy into a Republic. After the referendum, King Umberto II of Italy is exiled.

1948–Child actor, Jerry Mathers, is born Gerald Patrick Mathers in Sioux City, Iowa. He is best known for the role of Beaver Cleaver on the TV series Leave It to Beaver. He appeared in the films Son of Paleface, The Seven Little Foys, The Trouble with Harry, That Certain Feeling, Bigger Than Life, and Back to the Beach.

1949–Anthony Jones, of Humble Pie, is born in Ada, Oklahoma.

1953–Elizabeth II, the Queen of Great Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Her Other Realms and Territories & Head of the Commonwealth, is crowned at Westminster Abbey in London, England, to a worldwide television audience; the first major international event to be televised.

1953–Elvis Presley graduates from L.C. Humes High School in Memphis, Tennessee.

1954–Wisconsin Senator, Joseph McCarthy, charges that there are Communists working in the CIA and U.S. atomic weapons plants.

1954–Actor, Dennis (Dexter) Haysbert, is born in San Mateo, California. He is best known for the role of Pedro Cerrano in the “Major League” film trilogy. He also had recurring roles on the TV shows Now and Again, 24, and The Unit. He appeared in the films Navy Seals, Mr. Baseball, Love Field, Heat, Waiting to Exhale, Absolute Power, The Minus Man, and Jarhead.

1955–The USSR and Yugoslavia sign the Belgrade declaration and normalize relations between both countries, which had been discontinued since 1948.

1955–Comedian-actor, Dana (Thomas) Carvey, is born in Missoula, Montana. He is best known as a cast member on the TV show Saturday Night Live. He appeared in the films This Is Spinal Tap, Racing with the Moon, Tough Guys, Moving, Opportunity Knocks, Wayne’s World, Clean Slate, The Road to Wellville, and Trapped in Paradise.

1955–Actor, Gary Grimes, is born in San Francisco, California. He appeared in the films Summer of '42, The Culpepper Cattle Company, Class of '44, Cahill U.S. Marshal, The Spikes Gang, and Gus. Grimes retired from show business in the late 1970s, and has remained out of public view since that time.

1959–Beat personality, Allen Ginsberg, writes his poem, "Lysergic Acid."

1960–The Silver Beetles perform at The Institute, Neston, Wirral, Cheshire, England. They are paid £10, and they give their manager Allan Williams a commission of £1. During the performance, a 16-year-old boy is nearly kicked to death.

1961–Playwright, George S. Kaufman, dies in New York, New York, at age 71. His works include The Front Page, Strike Up the Band, The Band Wagon, Of Thee I Sing, Dinner at Eight, You Can’t Take It With You, Of Mice and Men, The Man Who Came to Dinner, My Sister Eileen, Guys and Dolls, The Solid Gold Cadillac, and Silk Stockings.

1962–Island Records releases its first single. The label will become home to acts like Jethro Tull, Traffic, and Bob Marley and the Wailers.

1962–During the FIFA World Cup, police intervene multiple times in fights between Chilean and Italian players in one of the most violent games in football history.

1964–The Rolling Stones play their first American show at a Lynn, Massachusetts, high school football stadium. They also make their American TV debut on The Les Crane Show. The press remarks of the group: “They are dirtier than The Beatles.”

1964–Production begins on the film Ferry Cross the Mersey, starring Gerry & the Pacemakers.

1965–The Paramount Theater, the grandest of cinema palaces, closes in New York City.

1966–U.S. spacecraft, Surveyor I, makes a successful soft landing on the Moon and begins sending back the first close-up pictures of the lunar surface.

1966–Disc magazine publishes the banned "butcher cover" for the upcoming Beatles LP Yesterday and Today.

1967–Race riots take place in the Roxbury section of Boston, Massachusetts.

1967–Luis Monge is executed in Colorado's gas chamber.

1967–In West Berlin, Germany, protests against the arrival of the Shah of Iran turn into riots, during which Benno Ohnesorg is killed by a police officer. His death results in the founding of the terrorist group Movement 2 June.

1967–The album, Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, by The Beatles is released in the United States, signaling the start of the “Summer of Love.”

1968–TV host, Andy Cohen, is born Andrew Joseph Cohen in St. Louis, Missouri. He is best known as the host of the Bravo channel TV show Watch What Happens: Live. After holding the title as Head of Development for Bravo for over 10 years, he resigned in November 2013. He continued to serve as an executive producer of “The Real Housewives” franchise.

1969–Actor, Leo Gorcey, dies in Oakland, California, at age 51. He is best known for the role as the leader of the group of young hooligans known variously in the movies as the Dead End Kids, The East Side Kids, and The Bowery Boys.

1972–Comedian, Wayne (Alphonso) Brady, is born in Columbus, Georgia. He is best known for his work on the American version of the improvisational comedy TV series Whose Line Is It Anyway?

1973–A chart topper: My Love by Wings.

1977–The state of New Jersey allows casino gambling in Atlantic City.

1977–Actor, Stephen Boyd, dies of a heart attack while playing golf at the Porter Valley Country Club in Northridge, California, at age 45. He appeared in the films The Man Who Never Was, Island in the Sun, Woman Obsessed, The Best of Everything, Ben-Hur, Billy Rose’s Jumbo, Lisa, The Poppy is Also a Flower, The Oscar, and Fantastic Voyage.

1979–Pope John Paul II visits his native Poland, becoming the first Pope to visit a Communist country.

1979–Actor, Jim Hutton, dies of liver cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 45. He appeared in the movies The Subterraneans, Where The Boys Are, The Honeymoon Machine, Bachelor in Paradise, The Horizontal Lieutenant, Period of Adjustment, Major Dundee, The Hallelujah Trail, Never Too Late, The Trouble with Angels, Walk, Don’t Run, Who’s Minding the Mint?, The Green Berets, and Hellfighters.

1980–At an auction in Syracuse, New York, dairy farmer, Steve Potter, pays $265,000 for a single Holstein cow owned by the John Lennon and Yoko Ono.

1983–After an emergency landing because of an in-flight fire, 23 passengers aboard Air Canada Flight 797 are killed when a flashover occurs as the plane's doors open. Because of this incident, numerous new safety regulations will be put in place.

1984–A chart topper: Wake Me Up Before You Go-Go by Wham!

1986–Regular TV coverage of U.S. Senate sessions begins.

1987–Orchestra leader, Sammy Kaye, dies in Manhattan, New York, at age 77. He was a bandleader and songwriter, whose tag line, "Swing and sway with Sammy Kaye," became one of the most famous of the Big Band Era.

1987–Classical guitarist, Andrés Segovia, dies of a heart attack in Madrid, Spain, at age 94. Many professional classical guitarists today were students of Segovia, or students of his students.

1988–Consumer Reports calls for a ban on the Suzuki Samurai automobile.

1988–The 61st National Spell Bee: Rageshree Ramachandran wins, spelling elegiacal.

1989–The 62nd National Spell Bee: Scott Isaacs wins, spelling spoliator.

1990–The Lower Ohio Valley tornado outbreak spawns 66 confirmed tornadoes in Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, and Ohio, killing 12 people. Petersburg, Indiana, is the hardest-hit town in the outbreak, with six deaths.

1990–Actor, Rex Harrison, dies of pancreatic cancer in New York, New York, at age 82. He appeared in the films Blithe Spirit, Anna and the King of Siam, The Ghost and Mrs. Muir, Unfaithfully Yours, The Constant Husband, The Reluctant Debutante, Midnight Lace, Cleopatra, My Fair Lady, The Yellow Rolls-Royce, The Agony and the Ecstasy, Doctor Dolittle, and Staircase.

1990–Frederick Mellinger, founder of Fredericks of Hollywood, dies at age 76.

1990–Robert Noyce, co-inventor of the semiconductor and founder of Intel, dies.

1992–Screenwriter, Philip Dunne, founder of the Screen Writers Guild, dies of cancer in Malibu, California, at age 84. His films include How Green Was My Valley, Pinky, The Robe, Blue Denim, Wild in the Country, and The Agony and the Ecstasy.

1993–Entrepreneur, Norton Simon, of Hunt’s Foods, dies of the neurological disorder Guillain-Barré syndrome in Beverly Hills, California, at age 86. He was a millionaire industrialist and philanthropist based in California. His significant art collection is housed in the Norton Simon Museum in Pasadena, California.

1994–Indonesian censors ban Steven Spielberg's film Schindler's List.

1994–The 67th National Spelling Bee: Ned Andrews wins, spelling antediluvian.

1995–U.S. Air Force Captain Scott O'Grady's F-16 is shot down over Bosnia while patrolling the NATO no-fly zone.

1996–Ray Combs, TV host of Family Feud, commits suicide by hanging in Glendale, California, at age 40. He was being held for observation in the psychiatric ward of Glendale Adventist Medical Center.

1997–Bob Dylan is released from the hospital, where he was treated for pericarditis brought on by histoplasmosis. He says, “I'm just glad to be feeling better. I really thought I'd be seeing Elvis soon.”

1997–In Denver, Colorado, Timothy McVeigh is convicted on 15 counts of murder and conspiracy for his role in the 1995 terrorist bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

1997–Jazz musician, Doc Cheatham, dies of a stroke in Washington D.C., at age 91. After having played in some of the leading jazz groups from the 1920s on, Cheatham enjoyed renewed acclaim in later decades of his career. He himself agreed with the critical assessment that he was probably the only jazz musician to create his best work after the age of 70.

1998–The CIH computer virus is discovered in Taiwan.

1999–Japanese women win the right to use the birth control pill.

1999–Junior Braithwaite, of Bob Marley and the Wailers, is murdered in the home of a fellow musician in Kingston, Jamaica, at age 50.

2001–Comedienne, Imogene Coca, dies from natural causes related to Alzheimer's disease in Westport, Connecticut, at age 92. She was best known as a regular performer on the 1950s TV variety series Your Show of Shows. She had her own TV series The Imogene Coca Show (1954-1955). She appeared in the films Promises! Promises!, Under the Yum Yum Tree, Rabbit Test, National Lampoon’s Vacation, and Nothing Lasts Forever.

2003–Europe launches its first voyage to Mars. The European Space Agency's Mars Express probe launches from the Baikonur space center in Kazakhstan.

2003–After a public outcry (and legal protests from Yoko Ono), Paul McCartney agrees to drop his mission to have certain Beatles songwriting credits reversed to read "McCartney-Lennon." The two songwriters had agreed to the credit of Lennon-McCartney from the start of their youthful partnership back in Liverpool, England. John Lennon never departed from it, going so far as to give the credit Lennon-McCartney to Give Peace a Chance.

2004–Ken Jennings begins his 74-game winning streak on the syndicated game show Jeopardy!

2006–Vince Welnick, of The Grateful Dead and The Tubes, dies of suicide by slitting his own throat in Sonoma County, California, at age 55. He had been battling depression for 10 years and had attempted suicide earlier in his life.

2008–Blues musician, Bo Diddley, dies of heart failure at his home in Archer, Florida, at age 79. More than 35 family members were at the musician's home when he died at 1:45 a.m., as his death was not unexpected. The gospel song Walk Around Heaven was sung at his bedside and his last words were, “I'm going to heaven.” He played a key role in the transition from the blues to rock and roll, influencing a host of acts, including The Animals, Buddy Holly, Jimi Hendrix, The Rolling Stones, Pink Floyd, Parliament Funkadelic, The Velvet Underground, The Who, The Yardbirds, The Jesus and Mary Chain, Eric Clapton, Elvis Presley, and The Beatles. His hits include Bo Diddley, Who Do You Love, and Hey! Bo Diddley.

2008–Actor, Mel Ferrer, dies of heart failure in Santa Barbara, California, at age 90. He appeared in the films Rancho Notorious, Scaramouche, Lili, War and Peace, The Sun Also Rises, The World, the Flesh, and the Devil, Ladies Man, Paris When It Sizzles, Sex and the Single girl, Wail Until Dark, A Time for Loving, The Net, The Visitor, and Nightmare City.

2011–84th National Spelling Bee: Sukanya Roy wins, spelling cymotrichous.

2012–Former Egyptian President, Hosni Mubarak, is sentenced to life imprisonment for his role in the killing of demonstrators during the 2011 Egyptian revolution.

2012–An Allied Air cargo plane crashes into a minibus after overshooting the runway at Accra's Kotoka International Airport in Ghana, killing at least 12 people.

2012–Actor, Richard Dawson, dies of esophageal cancer in Los Angeles, California, at age 79. He co-starred in the popular TV series Hogan’s Heroes, then became the host of the TV game show Family Feud. He appeared in the films King Rat, Out of Sight, Munster, Go Home!, The Devil’s Brigade, and The Running Man.

2014–Telangana officially becomes the 29th state of India.

2016–U.S. Speaker of the House, Paul Ryan, endorses Donald Trump for President of the United States, saying he will vote for him in the upcoming election.

2016–An autopsy finds that rock star, Prince, died of an overdose of fentanyl, an opioid painkiller 50 times more powerful than heroin.

2017–Leo Varadkar becomes the new Taoiseach (Prime Minister) of Ireland and leader of the Fine Gael Party, after winning 51 of the 73 votes in the parliamentary party. He is the youngest, and is the first openly gay man to be Taoiseach, as well as being the first of half-Indian descent.

2017–90th National Spelling Bee: Ananya Vinay wins, spelling marocain.

2018–Two climbers fall to their deaths from the face of the towering El Capitan granite rock formation at Yosemite National Park in northern California.

2018–Customs and Border Safety (CBP) begins work on a stretch of the U.S. border in San Diego, California.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Pope Benedict I; Marquis de Sade; James Gibbs' sewing machine; Johnny Weissmuller; Alexander Salkind; Velveeta; Stacy Keach; Marvin Hamlisch; Dany Carvey; George S. Kaufman; the Paramount Theater in New York City; Andy Cohen; Stephen Boyd; Wham!; Rex Harrison; Bob Dylan on the cover of Newsweek magazine; Imogene Coca; Bo Diddley; and Richard Dawson.

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