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1942–Musician, (James) Paul McCartney, of The Beatles, is born at Walton Hospital, Liverpool, England. In the early days of Beatlemania, he was nicknamed “The Cute One.” Officially the “second Beatle,” he was the band’s bass guitarist and main songwriter for the group with his partner, John Lennon. When The Beatles broke up in 1970, McCartney started a new band, with his wife Linda, called Wings. Into the 21st century, Paul McCartney has continued to tour the world with live concerts, as well as recording new albums for his bastion of multi-generation fans. McCartney’s songs (with The Beatles and solo) include Yesterday, For No One, Hey Jude, When I’m 64, Fixing a Hole, Blackbird, Oh, Darling, Let It Be, The Long and Winding Road, Maybe I’m Amazed, My Love, Silly Love Songs, Band on the Run, and Coming Up. As one of The Beatles and a solo artist, McCartney is considered one of the most renowned musicians, singers, and performers of all time. His brother is photographer, Mike McCartney.

618–Chinese governor Li Yuan, as Emperor Gaozu of Tang, the new Emperor of China, initiates three centuries of the Tang Dynasty's rule over China.

656–Ali becomes Caliph of the Rashidun Caliphate. He was the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, the prophet of Islam.

741–Byzantine Emperor, Leo III the Isaurian, dies of dropsy at age 55.

860–A fleet of about 200 Rus' vessels sails into the Bosphorus and starts pillaging the suburbs of the Byzantine capital Constantinople.

1053–Three thousand horsemen of Norman Count Humphrey rout the troops of Pope Leo IX.

1178–This is the proposed time of origin of lunar crater Giordano Bruno, when five Canterbury monks report seeing an explosion on the Moon (the only such observation recorded in history... until one was sighted in 2005). It is believed that the current oscillations of the Moon's distance from the Earth are a result of this collision.

1234–Emperor Chukyo of Japan dies at age 16. Chukyo was enthroned at the age of two following the deposition of his father, the Emperor Juntoku. His reign spanned only months in 1221, and he was not officially listed amongst the emperors until 1870, because of doubts caused by the length of his reign.

1264–The Parliament of Ireland meets at Castledermot in County Kildare, the first known meeting of the Irish legislature.

1291–Alfonso III of Aragon dies in Barcelona, Spain, at age 26.

1332–Byzantine Emperor, John V Palaiologos, is born in Didymoteicho, Byzantine Empire.

1429–French forces, under the leadership of Joan of Arc, defeat the main English army, under Sir John Fastolf, at the Battle of Patay. This turns the tide of the Hundred Years' War.

1517–Emperor Ogimachi of Japan is born Michihito in Japan. He became Emperor upon the death of Emperor Go-Nara.

1541–The Parliament of Ireland selects Henry VIII as King of Ireland.

1633–Charles I, is crowned King of Scots at St Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh, Scotland.

1662–Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Cleveland and illegitimate son of King Charles II of England, is born. His mother was Barbara Palmer, Countess of Castlemaine.

1682–William Penn founds Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1684–The charter of the Massachusetts Bay Colony is revoked via a scire facias writ issued by an English court.

1767–Samuel Wallis, an English sea captain, is the first European to reach Tahiti.

1778–British troops abandon Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, during the American Revolutionary War.

1804–Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria dies at Prague Castle, Prague, (present-day) Czech Republic, at age 58.

1812–The War of 1812 begins as the U.S. declares war against Great Britain.

1815–The Battle of Waterloo results in the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte by the Duke of Wellington and Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, forcing him to abdicate the throne of France for the second and last time.

1824–Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany, dies in Florence, Italy, at age 55.

1830–France invades Algeria.

1854–Publisher, E.W. Scripps, is born Edward Willis Scripps in Rushville Schuyler County Illinois. He founded the E.W. Scripps Company, a diversified media conglomerate, and United Press news service. It became United Press International (UPI) when International News Service merged with United Press in 1958.

1858–Charles Darwin receives a paper from Alfred Russel Wallace that includes almost identical conclusions about evolution as his own, prompting Darwin to publish his theory.

1859–The first ascent of Aletschhorn is made. It is the second summit of the Bernese Alps.

1866–Prince Sigismund of Prussia dies of meningitis at New Palace in Potsdam, Prussia, German Empire, at age 1.

1872–The Woman's Sufferage Convention is held at Mercantile Liberty Hall.

1873–Susan B. Anthony is fined $100 in Rochester, New York, for attempting to vote for President.

1886–Mountain climber, George Mallory, is born George Herbert Leigh Mallory in Mobberley, Cheshire, England. He was a mountaineer who took part in the first three British expeditions to Mount Everest in the early 1920s. When asked, “Why climb a mountain?” he answered, “Because it is there.”

1887–The Reinsurance Treaty between Germany and Russia is signed.

1892–Macadamia nuts are planted in Hawaii.

1898–The Steel Pier Boardwalk opens in Atlantic City, New Jersey. It has nine miles of food, beverages, concessions, amusements, and concerts.

1900–Empress Dowager Longyu of China orders all foreigners killed, including foreign diplomats and their families.

1903–Actress, Jeanette (Anna) MacDonald, is born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. During the 1930s and 1940s, she starred in 29 feature films. She later appeared in opera, concerts, radio, and television. She appeared in the films The Love Parade, The Vagabond King, Monte Carlo, Love Me Tonight, The Merry Widow, Naughty Marietta, San Francisco, The Girl of the Golden West, Broadway Serenade, New Moon, Smilin’ Through, Cairo, and Follow the Boys. She was married to actor, Gene Raymond.

1904–Actor, Keye Luke, is born in Canton, China. He was best known for for the role of Lee Chan, the “Number One Son,” in the “Charlie Chan” films; the original Kato in the 1939-1941 “Green Hornet” film serials; and Master Po in the TV series Kung Fu. He also appeared in the films The Good Earth, Mr. and Mrs. North, Fair Wind to Java, Project X, Gremlins, and Alice.

1906–Orchestra leader, Kay Kyser, is born in Rocky Mount, North Carolina. During the late 1930s and early 1940s, Kyser's band appeared in several motion pictures, usually as themselves, beginning with the successful That's Right You're Wrong, You'll Find Out, Playmates, and My Favorite Spy. Some of the films built a plot around the band. Around the World fictionalized the band's international tours of military camps, and Swing Fever suggested that Kyser was blessed with a hypnotic eye.

1908–The University of the Philippines is established.

1908–Japanese immigration to Brazil begins, as 781 people arrive in Santos aboard the ship Kasato-Maru.

1908–TV emcee, Bud Collyer, is born in New York, New York. He was the host of the game shows Beat the Clock and To Tell the Truth.

1913–Lyricist, Sammy Cahn, is born Samuel Cohen in New York, New York. He and his collaborators had a series of hit recordings with Frank Sinatra during the singer's tenure at Capitol Records, and also enjoyed hits with Dean Martin, Doris Day, and many others. In 1988, the “Sammy Awards,” an annual award for movie songs and scores, was started in his honor. He was chosen because he had received more Academy Award nominations than any other songwriter, and also because he had received four Oscars for his song lyrics. Among his songs are All the Way, High Hopes, It’s Magic, Call Me Irresponsible, (Love Is) The Tender Trap, The Best of Everything, The Second Time Around, Ain't That a Kick in the Head?, My Kind of Town, Love and Marriage, Teach Me Tonight, The Christmas Waltz, and Let It Snow, Let It Snow, Let It Snow.

1913–Napa Valley vintner, Robert Mondavi, is born in Virginia, Minnesota. In 1966, he founded the Robert Mondavi Winery in Napa Valley, California, with his sons, Michael and Tim Mondavi, with the goal of producing wines that would compete with the finest wines from Europe. From an early period, Mondavi aggressively promoted labeling wines varietally rather than generically: this is now the standard for New World wines.

1913–Financial writer, Sylvia Porter, is born Sylvia Field Feldman in Patchogue, New York. She wrote Sylvia Porter's Money Book.

1914–Actor, E.G. Marshall, is born Everett Eugene Grunz in Owatonna, Minnesota. He is best known for the role of lawyer Lawrence Preston on the TV drama series The Defenders. He appeared in the films 13 Rue Madeleine, Call Northside 777, The Caine Mutiny, The Silver Chalice, The Bachelor Party, 12 Angry Men, Compulsion, Cash McCall, Town Without Pity, The Chase, Is Paris Burning?, The Learning Tree, Interiors, My Chauffeur, National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation, Nixon, and Absolute Power.

1915–Firefighter, Red Adair, is born Paul Neal Adair in Houston, Texas. He became notable as an innovator in the highly specialized and hazardous profession of extinguishing and capping oil well blowouts, both land-based and offshore.

1917–Actor, Richard Boone, is born in Los Angeles, California. He is best known for the role of Paladin on the TV Western series Have Gun Will Travel. He appeared in the films Halls of Montezuma, The Robe, Man Without a Star, The Big Knife, The Tall T, The Garment Jungle, Ocean’s 11, The Alamo, Hombre, The Shootist, and Winter Kills.

1920–Actor, Ian Carmichael, is born in Hull, East Riding of Yorkshire, England. He appeared in the films Bond Street, Ghost Ship, Meet Mr. Lucifer, Betrayed, Private’s Progress, Lucky Jim, The Big Money, I'm All Right Jack, Heavens Above!, Smashing Time, and The Lady Vanishes. He was married to novelist, Kate Fenton.

1923–Checker Taxi puts its first taxi on the streets.

1926–Olga Constantinovna of Russia dies aftering lingering ill health in Rome, Italy, or Pau, France, at age 74.

1930–Groundbreaking ceremonies for the Franklin Institute are held in in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

1935–Police in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, clash with striking longshoremen, which results in a total 60 people being injured and 24 arrests.

1936–Economist, Barack Obama, Sr., is born Baraka Obama in Nyang'oma Kogelo, Rachuonyo District, Kenya Colony. He was the father of U.S. President Barack Obama. He is a central figure of his son's memoir Dreams from My Father.

1936–Television comedy writer, Chris Bearde, is born in Sydney, Australia. He is best known for his work as a writer on the 1960s hit Laugh In, and for co-writing and producing TV specials for Elvis Presley, Bob Hope, Sonny and Cher, Bill Cosby, Steve Martin, Jim Carrey, The Jackson Five, The Osmonds, and Lucille Ball.

1937–Gaston Doumergue, Premier of France (1913-1934), dies in Aigues-Vives, France, at age 73. He was widely regarded as one of the most popular French Presidents. Doumergue was single when elected, and became the first President of France to marry in office.

1940–In London, Winston Churchill tries to encourage the English public by saying that in a thousand years people would look back at World War II and say, “This was England’s finest hour.”

1942–Film critic, Roger (Joseph) Ebert, is born in Urbana, Illinois. Ebert, who worked at The Chicago Sun-Times from 1967 until his death in 2013, reviewed nearly 200 movies a year during his career. Ebert and critic, Gene Siskel, of The Chicago Tribune, helped popularize nationally televised film reviewing when they co-hosted the PBS show Sneak Previews, followed by several variously-named At the Movies programs. In 1975, Ebert was the first film critic to win the Pulitzer Prize for Criticism. He received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2005.

1942–Musician, (James) Paul McCartney, of The Beatles, is born at Walton Hospital, Liverpool, England. In the early days of Beatlemania, he was nicknamed “The Cute One.” Officially the “second Beatle,” he was the band’s bass guitarist and main songwriter for the group with his partner, John Lennon. When The Beatles broke up in 1970, McCartney started a new band, with his wife Linda, called Wings. Into the 21st century, Paul McCartney has continued to tour the world with live concerts, as well as recording new albums for his bastion of multi-generation fans. McCartney’s songs (with The Beatles and solo) include Yesterday, For No One, Hey Jude, When I’m 64, Fixing a Hole, Blackbird, Oh, Darling, Let It Be, The Long and Winding Road, Maybe I’m Amazed, My Love, Silly Love Songs, Band on the Run, and Coming Up. As one of The Beatles and a solo artist, McCartney is considered one of the most renowned musicians, singers, and performers of all time. His brother is photographer, Mike McCartney.

1945–William Joyce ("Lord Haw-Haw") is charged with treason for his pro-German propaganda broadcasting during World War II.

1946–Actress, Luan Peters, is born Carol Hirsch in Bethnal Green, London, England. She appeared in the films Not Tonight Darling, Man of Violence, Lust for a Vampire, Twins of Evil, Freelance, The Flesh and Blood Show, Old Drac, The Devil’s Men, The Wildcats of St. Trinian's, and Pacific Banana.

1948–The first LP (long-playing 12-inch vinyl plastic record), turning at 33-1/3 rpm, is demonstrated in New York by Peter Goldmark.

1948–The United Nations Commission on Human Rights adopts its “International Declaration of Human Rights.”

1948–The U.S. National Security Council authorizes covert operations.

1952–Actress, Carol Kane, is born Carolyn Laurie Kane in Cleveland, Ohio. She is best known for the role of Simka on the TV series Taxi. She appeared in the films Carnal Knowledge, Wedding in White, The Last Detail, Hester Street, Dog Day Afternoon, Harry and Walter Go to New York, Annie Hall, The World’s Greatest Lover, The Muppet Movie, Whan a Stranger Calls, The Secret Diary of Sigmund Freud, Racing with the Moon, Terror in the Aisles, Transylvania 6-5000, Jumpin’ Jack Flash, Ishtar, The Princess Bride, License to Drive, Scrooged, The Lemon Sisters, Flashback, Joe Versus the Volcano, Even Cowgirls Get the Blues, and Man on the Moon.

1952–Actress, Isabella Rossellini, is born Isabella Fiorella Elettra Giovanna Rossellini in Rome, Italy. She appeared in the films White Nights, Blue Velvet, Siesta, Zelly and Me, Cousins, Wild at Heart, Death Becomes Her, The Pickle, The Innocent, Fearless, The Gift, Wyatt Earp, Immortal Beloved, Big Night, and Empire. Her parents are film director, Roberto Rossellini and actress, Ingrid Bergman. She was married to director, Martin Scorsese.

1953–The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 ends with the overthrow of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty and the declaration of the Republic of Egypt.

1953–Civil rights activist, Martin Luther King, Jr., marries fellow activist, Coretta Scott.

1953–A United States Air Force C-124 crashes and burns near Tachikawa, Japan, killing 129 people.

1954–Pierre Mends-France becomes Prime Minister of France.

1954–Carlos Castillo Armas leads an invasion force across the Guatemalan border, setting in motion the 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état.

1959–Governor of Louisiana, Earl K. Long, is committed to a state mental hospital. He has the hospital's director fired and replaced with a crony who proceeds to declare him sane.

1959–Actress, Ethel Barrymore, dies of cardiovascular disease in Hollywood, California, at age 79. She was a member of the Barrymore family of actors. She appeared in the films (Silent) The Nightingale, The White Raven, Life’s Whirlpool, The Divorcee; and (Sound) None But the Lonely Heart, The Spiral Staircase, The Farmer's Daughter, The Paradine Case, Portrait of Jennie, Pinky, Kind Lady, The Story of Three Loves, and Young at Heart.

1963–The Beatles attend Paul McCartney's 21st birthday celebration, held at the house of Paul's Auntie Gin, in Liverpool, England. John Lennon, who had become quite drunk, becomes enraged when Bob Wooler hints that John and Beatles’ manager, Brian Epstein, may have had a homosexual affair during their vacation in Spain. Lennon gives Wooler a severe beating (taking a shovel to him in the garden). Wooler later sued Lennon over the incident, but he dropped the suit when John apologized and paid him damages of £200. Of course, no word of this ever made headlines in America or elsewhere, after The Beatles reached international fame in early 1964.

1963–Dizzy Reed, of Guns n' Roses, is born Darren Arthur Reed in Hinsdale, Illinois.

1965–The United States uses B-52 bombers to attack National Liberation Front guerrilla fighters in South Vietnam.

1965–The Dave Clark Five begin a six-week tour of the U.S. with a show at The Academy of Music in New York.

1967–At the Monterey Pop Festival, after an argument between Jimi Hendrix and The Who over who is going to close the festival, Hendrix plays a set in which he sets his guitar on fire.

1968–The U.S. Supreme Court bans racial discrimination in the sale and rental of housing.

1968–In His Own Write, a play based upon John Lennon's two books (In His Own Write and A Spaniard in the Works), opens at the Old Vic Theatre in London, England. The play was adapted from John's writings by Lennon, Adrienne Kennedy, and Victor Spinetti (who also directed the stage production).

1971–President Richard Nixon declares that illegal drugs are "public enemy number one," which becomes popularized as the "War on Drugs."

1972–A BEA H.S. Trident crashes two minutes after take off from Heathrow Airport in London, England, killing 118 people.

1975–Faisal Ibn Mussed Abdul Aziz, Saudi Prince, is beheaded in a Riyadh shopping center parking lot for killing his uncle, the King.

1976–Country singer, Blake (Tollison) Shelton, is born in Ada, Oklahoma. He has charted with 24 country singles, including 11 at #1. He is a five-time Grammy Award nominee. Shelton is also known for his role as a coach on the televised singing competition The Voice. since its inception, and is the winningist coach to date. He was married to country singer, Miranda Lambert.

1979–SALT II is signed by the U.S. and the USSR.

1981–The AIDS epidemic is formally recognized by medical professionals in San Francisco, California.

1981–The Treaty of Basseterre is signed, creating the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States.

1981–The Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk, the first operational aircraft initially designed around stealth technology, makes its first flight.

1982–The body of Italian banker, Roberto Calvi, is discovered hanging beneath Blackfriars Bridge in London, England.

1982–Novelist, Djuna Barnes, dies in in her apartment at Patchin Place, Greenwich Village, New York, at age 90. Best known for her novel, Nightwood, which is a masterpiece of high modernism, Barnes was also a journalist, dramatist, poet, writer of short fiction, and visual artist.

1982–Writer, John Cheever, dies of cancer in Ossining, New York, at age 70. His fiction is mostly set in the Upper East Side of Manhattan, the Westchester suburbs, old New England villages (based on various South Shore towns around Quincy, Massachusetts, where he was born). His novels are The Wapshot Chronicle, The Wapshot Scandal, Bullet Park, Falconer, and Oh What a Paradise It Seems.

1982–Actor, Curt Jurgens, dies of a heart attack in Vienna, Austria, at age 66. He appeared in the films Operetta, Whom the Gods Love, Women Are No Angels, Orient-Express, Heros and Sinners, And God Created Women, This Happy Feeling, The Inn of the Sixth Happiness, The Blue Angel, The Longest Day, Psyche 59, Lord Jim, The Mephisto Waltz, Nicholas and Alexandra, and The Spy Who Loved Me.

1983–Astronaut, Sally Ride, becomes the first U.S. woman in space.

1983–Mona Mahmudnizhad together with nine other Baha’i women, is sentenced to death and hanged in Shiraz, Iran, over her religious beliefs.

1984–A major clash between about 5,000 police and a similar number of miners takes place at Orgreave, South Yorkshire, during the 1984-1985 U.K. miners' strike.

1985–John Lennon's posthumous single, Nobody Told Me, receives a BMI award.

1986–A plane and helicopter collide over the Grand Canyon, killing 52 people.

1987–Charles Glass, journalist for ABC-TV, is kidnapped in Lebanon.

1992–Entertainer, Peter Allen, dies of AIDS-related throat cancer in San Diego, California, at age 48. His big hit was I Go to Rio. As a songwriter, many of his songs were recorded by other artists. He wrote or co-wrote I Honestly Love You, Don’t Cry Out Loud, I’d Rather Leave While I’m in Love, You and Me, We Wanted It All, and Arthur’s Theme (Best That You Can Do).

1993–Africanized honey bees (called “killer bees”) reach Tucson, Arizona, and a small dog is killed by a bee attack.

1994–Members of the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) attack a crowded pub with assault rifles in Loughinisland, Northern Ireland, killing six Catholic civilians and wounding five others. The pub is crowded with people watching the 1994 FIFA World Cup.

1996–Ted Kaczynski, suspected of being the Unabomber, is indicted on 10 criminal counts.

1996–John Lennon and Yoko Ono's 1972 Chrysler station wagon, in which they drove across America in late May 1972, is auctioned at Sotheby's for $20,700.

2000–Actress, Nancy Marchand, dies of lung cancer and emphysema in Stratford, Connecticut, at age 71. She appeared in the films The Bachelor Party, The Bells of St. Mary’s, Me, Natalie, The Hospital, Look Homeward, Angel, The Bostonians, The Naked Gun: From the Files of Police Squad!, Regarding Henry, Jefferson in Paris, Reckless, and Sabrina.

2003–Google launches AdSense.

2006–The first Kazakh space satellite, KazSat-1, is launched.

2007–The Charleston Sofa Super Store fire takes place in Charleston, South Carolina, killing nine firefighters.

2009–The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), a NASA robotic spacecraft, is launched.

2009–Ali Akbar Khan, Indian composer and maestro sarod player, dies of renal failure in San Anselmo, California, at age 87. Khan was instrumental in popularising Indian classical music in the West, both as a performer (often in conjunction with Sitar maestro Ravi Shankar) and as a teacher.

2011–Sax player, Clarence Clemons, dies of complications from a stroke in West Palm Beach, Florida, at age 69. He began playing with Bruce Springsteen in 1972, and at the end of the shows, while recognizing members of the E Street Band, Springsteen referred to Clemons as "the biggest man you ever seen."

2012–Actor, Victor Spinetti, dies of prostate cancer in Monmouth, Wales, at age 82. He is best known for the three roles he played in The Beatles’ films A Hard Day’s Night, Help!, and Magical Mystery Tour. During his later career, Spinetti acted with the Royal Shakespeare Company. He appeared in the films Expresso Bongo, The Gentle Terror, Sparrows Can’t Sing, The Wild Affair, Becket, The Taming of the Shrew, The Biggest Bundle of Them All, Start the Revolution Without Me, Under Milk Wood, Digby, the Biggest Dog in the World, The Little Prince, The Return of the Pink Panther, Voyage of the Damned, Some Like It Cool, Under the Cherry Moon, and The Krays.

2014–Singer-songwriter and conductor, Johnny Mann, dies of heart failure in Anderson, South Carolina, at age 85. Johnny Mann and his vocal group, The Johnny Mann Singers, were involved in several classic rock 'n' roll and rockabilly recording sessions for Johnny Burnette, The Crickets, and Eddie Cochran. As bandleader with the Johnny Mann Singers, he recorded approximately three dozen albums, hosted the TV series Stand Up and Cheer, and was the musical director for The Joey Bishop Show.

2015–Businessman, Ralph J. Roberts, dies of natural causes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, at age 95. He co-founded Comcast Communications.

2016–Mohamed Morsi, former President of Egypt, is sentenced to life imprisonment plus another 15 years for his role in allegedly leaking government secrets to Qatar.

2018–President Donald Trump directs the U.S. Department of Defense to begin the process of establishing a "space force" as the sixth military branch of the U.S. Armed Forces.

2018–A 6.1 earthquake strikes northern Osaka, Japan. At least two people are killed and several others are transported to hospitals with injuries. Electrical services are disrupted citywide, affecting 170,000 buildings.

2018–American rapper, XXXTentacion, is shot dead in Deerfield Beach, Florida, at age 20.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Lunar crater Giordano Bruno; the founding of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Charles Darwin; the Steel Pier Boardwalk in Atlantic City, New Jersey; Kay Kyser; Robert Mondavi; Richard Boone; Gaston Doumergue; Paul McCartney; the vinyl LP (long-playing) record; Isabella Rossellini; Ethel Barrymore; The Dave Clark Five; Blake Shelton; John Cheever, Peter Allen; Nancy Marchand, and Victor Spinetti.

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