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1904–American art and documentary photographer, Margaret Bourke-White, is born in the Bronx, New York. She would become the first female war correspondent, the first woman to work in combat zones, and the first foreign photographer permitted to document Soviet industry. Bourke-White was also the first woman photographer on the staff of Life magazine. She photographed the cover for the first issue.



1158–Munich, Germany, is founded by Henry the Lion on the banks of the river Isar.

1161–Emperor Qinzong of China dies as a hostage of the Jin Empire, at age 61.

1216–Prince Louis of France captures the city of Winchester and soon conquers over half of the Kingdom of England.

1276–While taking exile in Fuzhou in southern China, away from the advancing Mongol invaders, the remnants of the Song Dynasty court hold the coronation ceremony for the young Prince Zhao Shi, making him Emperor Duanzong.

1287–Kublai Khan defeats the force of Nayan and other traditionalist Borjigin princes in East Mongolia and Manchuria.

1349–Günther von Schwarzburg, King of Germany, dies in Frankfurt, Germany.

1404 – Welsh rebel leader Owain Glyndwr, having declared himself Prince of Wales, allies himself with the French against King Henry IV of England.

1529–Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria, is born in Linz, Austria.

1618–Joris Veseler prints the first Dutch newspaper, Courante uyt Italien, Duytslandt, &c., in Amsterdam.

1645–In the English Civil War, 12,000 Royalist forces are beaten by 15,000 Parliamentarian soldiers.

1775–The United States Army is founded by the Continental Congress.

1777–Congress adopts the "Stars and Stripes" as the official flag of the United States of America.

1789–Whisky distilled from maize (corn) is first produced by clergyman Rev. Elijah Craig. It is named “Bourbon” because he lived in Bourbon County, Kentucky.

1789–HMS Bounty mutiny survivors, including Captain William Bligh and 18 others, reach the island of Timor after a nearly 4,600-mile journey in an open boat.

1801–Benedict Arnold dies of delirium from dropsy in London, England, at age 60. He was the American general who shifted his allegiance to the British during the American Revolution.

1811–Writer, Harriet Beecher Stowe, is born Harriet Elisabeth Beecher in Litchfield, Connecticut. She wrote the then controversial Uncle Tom's Cabin. She wrote more than 20 books, including novels, three travel memoirs, and collections of articles and letters. She was influential for both her writings and her public stands on social issues of the day.

1820–Editor, John Bartlett, is born in Plymouth, Massachusetts. He is best known for his compiled book Bartlett’s Familiar Quotations. It is a reference work that is the longest-lived and most widely distributed collection of quotations. The book was first issued in 1855, and is currently in its 18th edition, which was published in 2012. It has been continually revised and reissued for a century since John Bartlett’s death.

1821–Badi VII, King of Sennar, surrenders his throne and realm to Isma'il Pasha, general of the Ottoman Empire, ending the existence of that Sudanese kingdom.

1822–Charles Babbage proposes a difference engine in a paper to the Royal Astronomical Society entitled, "Note on the application of machinery to the computation of astronomical and mathematical tables."

1825–Architect and engineer, Pierre Charles L'Enfant, dies in poverty in Prince George's County, Maryland, at age 70. He is best known for designing the layout of the streets of Washington, D.C., the L'Enfant Plan.

1834–Sandpaper is patented by Isaac Fischer, Jr., of Springfield, Vermont.

1839–The village of Henley, on the River Thames in Oxfordshire, England, stages its first Regatta.

1846–Anglo settlers in Sonoma, California, start a rebellion against Mexico and proclaim the California Republic.

1847–Robert von Bunsen invents the Bunsen burner.

1864–Alois Alzheimer, psychiatrist and neuropathologist, is born in Marktbreit, Bavaria. He discovered Alzheimers Disease.

1872–Trade unions are legalised in Canada.

1876–The California Street Cable Car Railroad Company gets its franchise.

1881–The player piano is patented by John McTammany, Jr., of Cambridge, Massachusetts.

1883–Poet, Edward Fitzgerald, dies in Merton, Norfolk, England, at age 74. He is best known for his translation of Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. Fitzgerald authorized four editions and had a fifth posthumous edition of his translation of which three (the first, second, and fifth) differ significantly; the second and third are almost identical, as are the fourth and fifth. The first and fifth editions are almost equally reprinted and anthologized.

1890–Nathan Handwerker is born in Kraków, Poland. He founded Nathan's Famous hot dog emporium at Coney Island, New York.

1900–Hawaii becomes a United States territory.

1904–American art and documentary photographer, Margaret Bourke-White, is born in the Bronx, New York. She would become the first female war correspondent, the first woman to work in combat zones, and the first foreign photographer permitted to document Soviet industry. Bourke-White was also the first woman photographer on the staff of Life magazine. She photographed the cover for the first issue.

1907–Norway grants women the right to vote.

1907–American architect and engineer, William Le Baron Jenney, dies at age 74. He is best known for building the first skyscraper in 1884. He was ranked number 89 in the book 1,000 Years, 1,000 People: Ranking the Men and Women Who Shaped the Millennium. Jenney is known as the “Father of the American Skyscraper.”

1909–Folksinger, Burl Ives, is born Burl Icle Ivanhoe Ives in Hunt City, Jasper County, Illinois. He had big hits with A Little Bitty Tear, Funny Way of Laughin’, and the Christmas hit A Holly Jolly Christmas. He appeared in the films Sierra, East of Eden, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, Desire Under the Elms, The Big Country, Summer Magic, The Brass Bottle, Ensign Pulver, and Two Moon Junction.

1916–Actress, Dorothy (Hackett) McGuire, is born in Omaha, Nebraska. She appeared in the films The Enchanted Cottage, A Tree Grows in Brooklyn, The Spiral Staircase, Gentleman’s Agreement, Three Coins in the Fountain, Friendly Persuasion, Old Yeller, A Summer Place, The Dark at the Top of the Stairs, Swiss Famuly Robinson, Susan Slade, Summer Magic, and The Greatest Story Ever Told. She was married to Life magazine photographer, John Swope.

1919–Actor, Gene Barry, is born Eugene Klass in New York, New York. He is best known for his starring role on the TV Western series Bat Masterson. He appeared in the films The Atomic City, The Girls of Pleasure Island, War of the Worlds, Soldier of Fortune, Back from Eternity, and Thunder Road.

1919–Actor, Sam Wanamaker, is born Samuel Watenmaker in Chicago, Illinois. He was an American film director and actor who moved to Britain after being put on the Hollywood blacklist in the early 1950s. He is credited as the person most responsible for the modern recreation of Shakespeare's Globe Theatre in London, England, where he is commemorated in the name of the Sam Wanamaker Playhouse, the site's second theatre. He appeared in the films The Criminal, Taras Bulba, Man in the Middle, The Spy Who Came in from the Cold, Those Magnificent Men in Their Flying Machines, Warning Shot, Death on the Nile, The Competition, Private Benjamin, Irreconcilable Differences, Baby Boom, and Guilty by Suspicion. His daughter is actress, Zoë Wanamaker.

1922–Architect, (Eamonn) Kevin Roche, is born in Dublin, Ireland. He designed the Bank of America Plaza, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and the Central Park Zoo. His projects include eight museums, 38 corporate headquarters, seven research facilities, performing arts centers, theaters, and campus buildings for six universities.

1925–Newsman, Pierre Salinger, is born Pierre Emil George Salinger in San Francisco, California. He was Press Secretary for Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. Salinger served as a U.S. Senator in 1964, and was manager for the Robert F. Kennedy presidential campaign.

1926–Brazil leaves the League of Nations.

1926–American expatriate painter and printmaker, Mary Cassatt, dies at Château de Beaufresne, near Paris, France, at age 82. She was buried in the family vault at Le Mesnil-Théribus.

1928–Ernesto “Che” Guevara, Latin American revolutionary, is born in Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina. He was a Marxist revolutionary, physician, author, guerrilla leader, diplomat, and military theorist. Following the Cuban Revolution, Guevara performed a number of key roles in the new government. These included reviewing the appeals and firing squads for those convicted as war criminals during the revolutionary tribunals, instituting agrarian land reform as minister of industries, helping spearhead a successful nationwide literacy campaign, serving as both national bank president and instructional director for Cuba's armed forces, and traversing the globe as a diplomat on behalf of Cuban socialism. Guevara remains both a revered and reviled historical figure. Time magazine named him one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century.

1929–Songwriter, Cy Coleman, is born Seymour Kaufman in New York, New York. He wrote Witchcraft and The Best is Yet to Come with his partner, Carolyn Leigh.

1931–Actress, Marla Gibbs, is born Margaret Theresa Bradley in Chicago, Illinois. She is best known for the role of Florence in the TV series The Jeffersons. She also starred in the TV sitcom 227. She appeared in the films The Meteor Man, Foolish, Lost & Found, The Visit, and Madea's Witness Protection.

1931–Saxophonist, Junior Walker, is born Autry DeWalt Mixon, Jr. in Blytheville, Arkansas. His group, Junior Walker & the All Stars, were signed to Motown in the 1960s, and became one of the label's signature acts. The group’s biggests hits were Shotgun and What Does It Take (To Win Your Love).

1932–Joe Arpaio, six-time elected Sheriff of Maricopa County, Arizona, is born in Springfield, Massachusetts. Starting in 2005, he took an outspoken stance as an advocate for strong enforcement of immigration law, and became a flashpoint for opposition to Arizona's SB1070 anti-illegal immigrant law, which was largely struck down by the U.S. Supreme Court.

1933–Novelist, Jerzy Kosinski, is born Józef Lewinkopf in Lodz, Poland. He wrote The Painted Bird and Being There.

1936–Singing cowboy, Roy Rogers, marries Arlene Wilkins in Roswell, New Mexico.

1937–Pennsylvania becomes the first (and only) state in the U.S. to celebrate Flag Day as an official state holiday.

1937–The U.S. House of Representatives passes the Marihuana Tax Act.

1938–Chlorophyll is patented by Benjamin Grushkin.

1938–Action Comics issues the first “Superman” comic book.

1940–The German Army takes Paris, France, entering the city at 6:30 in the morning, then spreading out into the neighborhoods. By 11:00 a.m., the swastika was flying from the Eiffel Tower. Nine days later, Hitler toured the city.

1945–Musician, Rod Argent, is born in St. Albans, England. As well as being a vocalist and keyboardist in his own band, Argent, he played with The Zombies and The Hollies.

1946–Real estate mogul, Donald (John) Trump, is born in Queens, New York. He is the chairman and president of The Trump Organization and the founder of Trump Entertainment Resorts. He created his own TV reality show The Apprentice. He was married to Ivana Zelnickova, Marla Maples, and Melania Knauss. His children are Donald, Jr., Ivanka, Eric, Tiffany, and Barron Trump. In 2016, Trump became the Republican nominee for President of the United States.

1946–Inventor, John Logie Baird, dies from a stroke in Bexhill, Sussex, England, at age 57. He was an engineer, innovator, and inventor of the world's first mechanical television; the first publicly demonstrated color television system; and the first purely electronic color television picture tube. Baird's early technological successes and his role in the practical introduction of broadcast television for home entertainment have earned him a prominent place in television's history.

1947–Barry Melton, of Country Joe and the Fish, is born in Brooklyn, New York. He is featured as the lead guartist on all the Country Joe and The Fish recordings, and he also wrote some of the songs that the band recorded.

1949–The state of Vietnam is formed.

1949–Albert II, a rhesus monkey, rides a V-2 rocket to an altitude of 83 miles, becoming the first monkey in space.

1949–Drummer, Alan White, is born in Pelton, County Durham, England. He played with John Lennon's Plastic Ono Band, The Alan Price Set, and the progressive rock group, Yes.

1951–The UNIVAC electronic digital computer goes into operation. The dimensions of the computer are 8 feet high, 7.5 feet wide, and 14.5 feet long.

1952–The keel is laid for the nuclear submarine USS Nautilus.

1952–Actor, Eddie Mekka, is born Rudolph Edward Mekjian in Worcester, Massachusetts. He is best known for the role of Carmine Ragusa in the TV series Laverne & Shirley. He was seen in many other TV shows, including Happy Days, The Love Boat, Fantasy Island, Moonlighting, Family Matters, 24, It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia, and ER. He appeared in the films Beaches, A League of Their Own, Dickie Roberts: Former Child Star, and Dreamgirls.

1952–Basketball coach, Pat Summitt, is born Patricia Sue Head in Clarksville, Tennessee. She was a college basketball head coach who achieved the most wins in NCAA basketball history of any coach, male or female. She served as the head coach of the University of Tennessee Lady Vols basketball team from 1974 to 2012, winning eight NCAA championships (an NCAA women's record when she retired). Summitt also won an Olympic Gold Medal as head coach of the 1984 U.S. women's basketball team, and was named the Naismith Basketball Coach of the Century in April 2000.

1954–President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs an order adding the words "under God" to The Pledge of Allegiance.

1954–Actor, Will Patton, is born William Rankin Patton in Charleston, South Carolina. He appeared in the films Silkwood, Desperately Seeking Susan, After Hours, No Way Out, Stars and Bars, A Shock to the System, Romeo Is Bleding, Natural Causes, The Client, Copycat, The Spitfire Grill, Inventing the Abbotts, The Postman, Armageddon, and Remember the Titans.

1957–Actress, Ava Gardner, divorces singer, Frank Sinatra.

1958–Nelson Mandela marries Winnie Madikizela.

1959–The Disneyland Monorail System, the first daily operating monorail system in the Western Hemisphere, opens to the public in Anaheim, California.

1961–Country singer, Patsy Cline, is involved in a head-on auto collision on Old Hickory Boulevard in Nashville, Tennessee. She is thrown into the windshield by the impact and sustains major head, wrist, and hip injuries. She will be hospitalized for a month.

1961–Boy George, of Culture Club, is born George Alan O'Dowd in Bexley, Kent, England. Boy George's androgynous style of dressing caught the attention of music executive, Malcolm McLaren (previously the manager of the Sex Pistols), who arranged for George to perform with the group Bow Wow Wow. From there, he formed Culture Club with Jon Moss and Roy Hay. The group’s biggest hits were Do You Really Want to Hurt Me? and Karma Chameleon. As a solo artist, he had a hit with The Crying Game.

1962–The European Space Research Organisation is established in Paris, France, later becoming the European Space Agency.

1963–Actress, Betty White, marries game show host, Allen Ludden, at the Sands Hotel-Casino in Las Vegas, Nevada.

1964–In England, a tea chest addressed to The Beatles is opened, and 12-year-old Beatlemaniac, Carol Dryden, is discovered inside.

1965–Bob Dylan records Like a Rolling Stone at Columbia Studio A in New York City. It's Dylan's first electric recording.

1966–The Vatican announces the abolition of the Index Librorum Prohibitorum (index of prohibited books), which was originally instituted in 1557.

1967–The People's Republic of China tests its first hydrogen bomb.

1967–Mariner 5 is launched towards the planet Venus.

1967–To Sir With Love, starring Sidney Poitier and Lulu, premieres in the U.S.

1968–Actress, Yasmine (Amanda) Bleeth, is born in New York, New York. She is best known for her role on the TV series Baywatch. She also appreared on the TV shows Boy Meets World, Veronica’s Closet, Nash Bridges, and Titans.

1969–Tennis player, Steffi Graf, is born Stefanie Maria Graf in Mannheim, West Germany. She was ranked #1 in the world during her career. Graf won 22 Grand Slam singles titles, which gives her the record for most major wins by a tennis player (male or female) since the introduction of the Open Era in 1968.

1971–The first Hard Rock Cafe opens in London, England.

1971–Frank Sinatra announces his retirement from show business, only to return a year and a half later with the legendary comeback album Ol' Blue Eyes is Back.

1973–The 46th National Spelling Bee: Barrie Trinkle wins, spelling vouchsafe.

1976–Six years after their breakup, The Beatles garner yet another gold album with the LP Rock 'n' Roll Music.

1985–TWA Flight 847 is hijacked by Lebanese Islamist organization Hezbollah shortly after take-off from Athens, Greece.

1986–An accident happens on the Mindbender, the world's largest indoor triple loop roller coaster located in Galaxyland Amusement Park inside West Edmonton Mall in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Three people are killed and one person is injured. The accident caused West Edmonton Mall to close the Mindbender for a few months for upgrades: the Mindbender has run accident-free ever since.

1986–Composer, Alan Jay Lerner, dies of lung cancer in New York, New York, at age 67. In collaboration with Frederick Loewe, he created some of the world's most popular and enduring works of musical theatre for both the stage and on film. Those works include Royal Wedding, An American in Paris, Brigadoon, Gigi, My Fair Lady, Camelot, Paint Your Wagon, and On a Clear Day You Can See Forever.

1986–TV personality, Marlin Perkins, dies of cancer in St. Louis, Missouri, at age 81. He was the host of the TV series Mutual of Omaha's Wild Kingdom.

1987–The 41st NBA Championship: The Los Angeles Lakers beat the Boston Celtics, 4 games to 2.

1989–Singer-songwriter, Carole King, receives a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

1989–Pete de Freitas, drummer for Echo & the Bunnymen, dies in a motorcycle accident in Longdon Green, Staffordshire, England, at age 27.

1990–The 44th NBA Championship: The Detroit Pistons beat the Portland Trailblazers, 4 games to 1.

1991–Actress, Peggy Ashcroft, dies from a stroke in London, England, at age 83. She appeared in the films The 39 Steps, The Nun’s Story, Secret Ceremony, Sunday Bloody Sunday, Joseph Andrews, A Passage to India, When the Wind Blows, and Madame Sousatzka.

1992–The 46th NBA Championship: The Chicago Bulls beat the Portland Trailblazers, 4 games to 2.

1993–President Bill Clinton selects Judge Ruth Bader Ginsburg, a women's rights advocate, to serve on the U.S. Supreme Court.

1993–Cartoonist, V.T. Hamlin, dies in Brooksville, Florida, at age 93. He created the cartoon character “Alley Oop.”

1994–The Stanley Cup: The New York Rangers beat the Vancouver Canucks, 4 games to 3. A riot occurs after the game, causing an estimated $1.1 million in damages, and leading to 200 arrests and injuries.

1994–Film composer, Henry Mancini, dies of pancreatic cancer in Los Angeles, Californa, at age 70. He is best known for his film and television scores. His work includes The Music from Peter Gun, High Time, Breakfast at Tiffany’s, A Change of Seasons, Charade, The Pink Panther, The Great Race, Darling Lili, The Molly McGuires, Silver Streak, and The Thorn Birds. His hits include Moon River, Days of Wine and Roses, Charade, Dear Heart, The Sweetheart Tree, Love Theme from Romeo and Juliet, and Love Story.

1995–The 49th NBA Championship: The Houston Rockets beat the Orlando Magic, in 4 games.

1995–Rock guitarist, Rory Gallagher, dies of complications from a liver transplant in London, England, at age 47.

1996–Beatles producer, George Martin, is awarded a Knighthood from Queen Elizabeth II.

1997–Actor, Richard Jaeckel, dies of cancer at the Motion Picture and Television Hospital in Woodland Hills, California, at age 70. He co-starred in the TV series Frontier Circus. He appeared in the films Sands of Iwo Jima, The Gunfighter, Come Back, Little Sheba, The Shanghai Story, The Violent men, 3:10 to Yuma, Cowboy, Flaming Star, Town Without Pity, The Dirty Dozen, The Green Slime, Chisum, Sometimes a Great Notion, The Drowning Pool, and Starman.

1998–The 52nd NBA Championship: The Chicago Bulls beat the Utah Jazz, 4 games to 2.

2002–A near-Earth asteroid misses the Earth by 75,000 miles; about one-third of the distance between the Earth and the Moon.

2006–Singer, Rufus Wainwright, recreates the whole of Judy Garland's legendary 1961 Carnegie Hall concert to mark the show's 35th anniversary.

2007–The 61st NBA Championship: The San Antonio Spurs beat the Cleveland Cavaliers, 4 games to 0.

2009–The 63rd NBA Championship: The Los Angeles Lakers beat the Orlando Magic, 4 games to 1.

2013–Hassan Rouhani is elected President of Iran.

2013–Massive flooding occurs in northern India, killing up to 10,000 people.

2014–A Ukraine military Ilyushin Il-76 airlifter is shot down, killing all 49 people on board.

2015–A wildfire near Willow, Alaska, in the Matanuska-Susitna Borough, burns over 6,500 acres.

2016–A U.S. Senate bill passes that will require women turning 18, on or after January 1, 2018, to register for Selective Service in the military, as young men are required to do. The United States has not used conscription (the draft) since 1973, during the Vietnam War.

2016–ISIS leader, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, is reportedly killed in an air strike in Raqqa, Syria.

2016–An armed man, holding two people hostage in a Walmart store in Amarillo, Texas, is shot and killed by a police SWAT unit. No other injuries are reported.

2016–Actress, Ronnie Claire Edwards, dies in her sleep in Dallas, Texas, at age 83. She is best known for the role of Corabeth Walton Godsey on the TV series The Waltons. She appeared in the films Five Days from Home, Getting Wasted, Perfect, Nobody’s Fool, The Dead Pool, and 8 Seconds.


PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Munich, Germany; Harriet Beecher Stowe; flag of the California Republic; Nathan's Famous hot dogs; Burl Ives; Sam Wanamaker; Mary Cassatt; Marla Gibbs; formula for chlorophyll; John Logie Baird; Eddie Mekka; the Disneyland Monorail; Like a Rolling Stone by Bob Dylan; Yasmin Bleeth; Alan Jay Lerner; Peggy Ashcroft; Henry Mancini; Richard Jaeckel; and Rufus Wainwright's "Judy Garland Carnegie Halll Concert" CD.

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