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1992–Two earthquakes hit on the West Coast of America. A 6.7 earthquake in Big Bear, California, causes some injuries, substantial damage, and landslides in the Big Bear Lake and Big Bear City areas. A 7.6 earthquake in Yucca Valley kills three people and injures over 400 others.



683–Pope Leo II dies in Rome, Byzantine Empire, at age 72.

767–Pope Paul I (757-767) dies in the Rome Empire, at age 67.

928–Roman Emperor, Louis the Blind, dies in Vienne, Provence, at age 48.

1065–Westminster Abbey is consecrated in London, England.

1098–Fighters of the First Crusade defeat Kerbogha of Mosull.

1194–Emperor Xiaozong of Song dies in China, at age 66.

1360–Muhammed VI becomes the 10th Nasrid King of Granada after killing his brother-in-law, Ismail II.

1385–Byzantine Emperor, Andronikos IV Palaiologos, dies in Selymbria, Byzantine Empire, at age 37.

1444–Charlotte, Queen of Cyprus, is born in Nicosia, Cyprus.

1461–Edward IV is crowned King of England.

1476–Pope Paul IV is born Gian Pietro Carafa in Capriglia Irpina, Kingdom of Naples.

1491–Henry VIII, King of England (1509-1547), is born at Greenwich Palace, Greenwich, England. Henry was the second monarch of the Tudor dynasty, succeeding his father, Henry VII. His six wives were Catherine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard, and Catherine Parr.

1519–Charles V is elected Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

1577–Flemish Baroque painter and printmaker, Peter Paul Rubens, is born in Siegen, Nassau-Dillenburg (present-day North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany). Rubens was well known for his Counter-Reformation style. He would go on to become classically educated as a humanist scholar and diplomat, as well as an artist well recognized in his own lifetime. Rubens was knighted by Charles I, King of England, and Philip IV, King of Spain.

1635–Guadeloupe becomes a French colony.

1709–Peter the Great defeats Charles XII of Sweden at the Battle of Poltava.

1712–French Enlightenment philosopher, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, is born in Geneva, Republic of Geneva. With his notions about the “noble savage” and educational views on the spirituality of children, he is considered the “Father of Romanticism.” Rousseau was also a successful composer of music, who wrote seven operas, as well as music in other forms, and made contributions to music as a theorist.

1719–General and politician, Etienne François de Choiseul, is born in Nancy, France. He was Foreign Minister of France (1758-1761 and 1766-1770).

1742–Attorney, Dr. William Hooper, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, is born in Boston, Massachusetts.

1776–The Battle of Sullivan's Island ends with the first decisive American victory in the American Revolutionary War, leading to the commemoration of Carolina Day.

1776–Thomas Hickey, Continental Army private and bodyguard to General George Washington, is hung for mutiny and sedition.

1807–In the second British invasion of the Río de la Plata, John Whitelocke lands at Ensenada in an attempt to recapture Buenos Aires and is defeated by the locals.

1820–The tomato is proven to be non-poisonous.

1836–James Madison, fourth U.S. President (1809-1817), dies in Montpelier, Virginia, at age 85. He was the last of the Founding Fathers.

1838–The coronation of Queen Victoria takes place at Westminster Abbey in London, England, a year after she had ascended to the throne.

1841–The Paris Opera Ballet premieres Giselle in the Salle Le Peletier in Paris, France.

1846–The saxophone is patented by Antoine Joseph Sax.

1855–The Sigma Chi Fraternity is founded in North America.

1859–The first dog show is held in Newcastle-on-Tyne, England.

1865–The Army of the Potomac is disbanded.

1880–Ned Kelly, the Australian bushranger, is captured in Glenrowan, Victoria, Australia.

1880–Frontier scout, actor, and cowboy, John Baker Omohundro, dies of pneumonia in Leadville, Colorado, at age 33. Critics described Omohundro as physically impressive and magnetic in personality. As “Texas Jack” he was the first performer to introduce roping acts to the American stage.

1881–The Austro-Serbian Alliance is secretly signed.

1882–The Anglo-French Convention marks the territorial boundaries between Guinea and Sierra Leone.

1883–Pierre Laval, Prime Minister of (1931-1932 and 1935-1936), is born in Châteldon, France. After the liberation of France in 1944, Laval was arrested by the French government under General Charles de Gaulle. In what some historians consider a flawed trial, Laval was found guilty of high treason, and after a thwarted suicide attempt, he was executed by firing squad.

1887–Coca-Cola syrup and extract are patented.

1889–Astronomer and academic, Maria Mitchell, dies in Lynn, Massachusetts, at age 70. In 1847, by using a telescope, she discovered a comet that became known as "Miss Mitchell's Comet." Mitchell was the first American woman to work as a professional astronomer.

1893–Oakwood Park opens in Woods Lake, Kalamazoo, Michigan. It offers a variety of entertainment including band concerts, balloon ascensions, baseball games, boating, dancing, and picnics. In 1904, the park's name was changed to Casino Park. Vaudeville, light opera, and burlesque dominated the bill, with occasional musical attractions. Oakwood's peak years were during the 1912-1914 seasons, when upwards of 15,000 patrons visited the resort each day.

1894–Labor Day becomes an official U.S. holiday.

1895–El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua form the Central American Union.

1895–The United States Court of Private Land Claims rules James Reavis' claim to Barony of Arizona is "wholly fictitious and fraudulent."

1896–An explosion in the Newton Coal Company's Twin Shaft Mine in Pittston City, Pennsylvania, results in a massive cave-in that kills 58 miners.

1898–22nd Wimbledon Mens Tennis: Reginald Doherty beats L. Doherty (6-3, 6-3 2-6, 5-7, 6-1)

1898–15th Wimbledon Womens Tennis: Charlotte Sterry beats L. Martin (6-4, 6-4).

1902–The U.S. Congress passes the Spooner Act, authorizing President Theodore Roosevelt to acquire rights from Colombia for the Panama Canal.

1902–Composer, songwriter, playwright, Richard (Charles) Rodgers, is born in Queens, New York. He is best known for his songwriting partnerships with the lyricists Lorenz Hart and Oscar Hammerstein II (as Rogers & Hammerstein). He composed of music for more than 900 songs and for 43 Broadway musicals. His work includes Jumbo, Babes in Arms, Oklahoma!, Carousel, State Fair, South Pacific, The King and I, Cinderella, Flower Drum Song, and The Sound of Music. His songs include My Romance, Where or When, My Funny Valentine, The Lady Is a Tramp, and Bewitched, Bothered and Bewildered.

1914–Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Sophie, are assassinated in Sarajevo by Bosnia Serb nationalist, Gavrilo Princip.

1919–The Treaty of Versailles is signed in Paris, France, formally ending World War I.

1921–Serbian King Alexander I proclaims the new constitution of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, known thereafter as the Vidovdan Constitution.

1921–P.V. Narasimha Rao, Premier of India (1991-1996), is born in Karimnagar, Hyderabad State (present-day Telangana, India). He is often referred to as the "Father of Indian Economic Reforms."

1922–The Irish Civil War begins with the shelling of the Four Courts in Dublin, Ireland, by Free State forces.

1926–Mercedes-Benz is formed by Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz merging their two automobile companies.

1926–Comedian-director, Mel Brooks, is born Melvin James Kaminsky in Brooklyn, New York. His films include The Producers, The Twelve Chairs, Blazing Saddles, Young Frankenstein, Silent Movie, High Anxiety, The Mupppet Movie, History of the World, Part I, Spaceballs, Life Stinks, Robin Hood: Men in Tights, and The Little Rascals. He was married to actress, Anne Bancroft.

1931–Racecar driver, Junior Johnson, is born Robert Glenn Johnson, Jr. in Wilkes County, North Carolina. He was one of the early superstars of NASCAR in the 1950s and 1960s. He won 50 NASCAR races in his career before retiring in 1966. He is nicknamed "The Last American Hero" and his autobiography and a feature film about his life are of the same name.

1932–Actor, Pat Morita, is born Noriyuki Morita in Isleton, California. He is best known for the role of Arnold on the TV series Happy Days. He appeared in the films Midway, When Time Ran Out, Savannah Smiles, The Karate Kid (trilogy), Honeymoon in Vegas, Even Cowgirls Get the Blues, Spyhard, and Elvis Has Left the Building.

1936–The Japanese puppet state of Mengjiang is formed in northern China.

1938–Comedian, John Byner, is born John Biener in New York, New York. He appeared on the TV shows The Steve Allen Comedy Hour, Get Smart, The Don Rickles Show, Love American Style, The Odd Couple, Maude, Soap, and The Love Boat. He appeared in the films What’s Up, Doc?, The Great Smokey Roadblock, A Pleasure Doing Business, Stoker Ace, and Transylvania 6-5000.

1938–Politician, Leon (Edward) Panetta, 23rd U.S. Secretary of Defense, is born in Monterey, California.

1939–The first trans-Atlantic regular commercial airplane service is undertaken by the Dixie Clipper of Pan American Airways, leaving Port Washington, New York, for Marseilles, France.

1939–Joe Louis defeats Tony Galent in Round 4 for the Heavyweight Boxing Championship.

1945–Dave Knights, of Procol Harum, is born in London, England.

1940–After facing an ultimatum, Romania cedes Bessarabia (present-day Moldova) to the Soviet Union.

1942–Nazi Germany begins its strategic summer offensive against the Soviet Union, codenamed Case Blue.

1945–Poland's Soviet-allied Provisional Government of National Unity is formed over a month after V-E Day.

1945–Dave (John) Knights, of Procol Harum, is born in Islington, North London, England.

1946–Enrico de Nicola becomes the first President of Italy.

1946–Actor, Bruce Davison, is born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He appeared in the films Last Summer, The Strawberry Statement, Willard, Mame, Grand Jury, Mother, Jugs & Speed, Deadman’s Curve, Crimes of Passion, Spies Like Us, Longtime Companion, Short Cuts, Six Degrees of Separation, Grace of My Heart, X-Men, Dahmer, and Runaway Jury.

1946–Comedienne, Gilda (Susan) Radner, is born in Detroit, Michigan. She is best known as one of the original cast members on the TV series Saturday Night Live. She appeared in the films The Last Detail, Gilda Live, First Family, Hanky Panky, The Woman in Red, Movers & Shakers, and Haunted Honeymoon. She was married to musician, G.E. Smith, and actor, Gene Wilder.

1948–The Tito-Stalin Split results in the expulsion of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia from the Cominform.

1948–Boxer, Dick Turpin, beats Vince Hawkins at Villa Park in Birmingham, England, to become the first black British boxing champion in the modern era.

1948–A 7.3 earthquake in Fukui, Japan, kills 5,390 people.

1948–Actress, Kathy Bates, is born Kathleen Doyle Bates in Memphis, Tennessee. She appeared in the films Straight Time, Come Back to the Five and Dime, Jimmy Dean Jimmy Dean, Two of a Kind, The Morning After, Men Don’t Leave, White Palace, Misery, At Play in the Fields of the Lord, Fried Green Tomatoes, Prelude to a Kiss, A Home of Our Own, Dolores Claiborne, Titanic, Primary Colors, Dragonfly, About Schmidt, and Midnight in Paris.

1950–During the Korean War, Seoul is captured by North Korean troops and they later conduct the Seoul National University Hospital massacre. Packed with its own refugees fleeing Seoul and their 5th Division stranded, South Korean forces blow up the Hangang Bridge to in attempt to slow North Korea's offensive.

1950–During the Korean War, 100,000 to 200,000 suspected communist sympathizers are executed in the Bodo League massacre.

1951–The comedy show, Amos 'n' Andy, debuts on CBS-TV.

1954–Actress, Alice (Maud) Krige, is born in Upington, Cape Province, South Africa. She appeared in the films Chariots of Fire, Ghost Story, King David, Barfly, See You in the Morning, Sleepwalkers, Star Trek: First Contact, and Lonely Hearts.

1956–The first atomic reactor built for private research, begins operation in Chicago, Illinois.

1964–Malcolm X founds the Organization for Afro American Unity to seek independence for blacks.

1965–Musician, Red Nichols, dies of a heart attack at The Mint Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada, at age 60. He was an American jazz cornettist, composer, and bandleader. His story is told in the film The Five Pennies, starring Danny Kaye.

1966–Actor, John (Paul) Cusack, is born in Evanston, Illinois. He appeared in the films Class, Sixteen Candles, Grandview, U.S.A., The Sure Thing, Better Off Dead, Stand By Me, One Crazy Summer, Broadcast News, Tapeheads, Eight Men Out, Say Anything..., Fat Man and Little Boy, The Grifters, True Colors, Shadows and Fog, The Player, Bob Roberts, Grosse Pointe Blank, Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil, Being John Malkovich, High Fidelity, Runaway Jury, Must Love Dogs, and 2012. His sister is actress, Joan Cusack.

1966–Actress, Mary Stuart Masterson, is born in New York, New York. She appeared in the films The Stepford Wives, Heaven Help Us, At Close Range, Some Kind of Wonderful, Gardens of Stone, Mr. North, Chances Are, Immediate Family, Fried Green Tomatoes, Married to It, Benny & Joon, Bad Girls, Radioland Murders, and Red of Roses. Her parents are writer-director, Peter Masterson, and actress, Carlin Glynn.

1967–Israel annexes East Jerusalem.

1967–The Monkees arrive in the U.K. for their concerts at the Empire Pool, Wembley, England.

1968–Cajun singer, Christine Balfa, is born. In 1992, she founded the group Balfa Toujours. She is the daughter of Cajun musician, Dewey Balfa.

1969–Crosby, Stills & Nash release their first album.

1969–Danielle (Anne) Brisebois, is born in Brooklyn, New York. She is best known for the role of Stephanie Mills on the sitcoms All in the Family and its spin-off Archie Bunker's Place.

1971–The city of Memphis, Tennessee, renames the 12-mile portion of Bellevue Boulevard that passes Graceland, "Elvis Presley Boulevard."

1972–President Richard Nixon announces that no new draftees will be sent to Vietnam.

1973–Elections are held for the Northern Ireland Assembly, which will lead to power-sharing between unionists and nationalists in Northern Ireland for the first time.

1973–John Lennon and Yoko Ono take part in a protest demonstration at the South Vietnamese Embassy in Washington, D.C.

1973–The Black Sports Hall of Fame is established, and its first elected members are Paul Robeson, Elgin Baylor, Jesse Owens, Jim Brown, Wilma Rudolph, Joe Louis, and Althea Gibson.

1973–The Searchers, Gerry & the Pacemakers, Herman's Hermits, and Wayne Fontana appear in a revival British Invasion show at New York's Madison Square Garden.

1974–Actor, Frank Sutton, dies of a heart attack in Shreveport, Louisiana, at age 50. He is best known for the role of Gunnery Sergeant Vince Carter on the TV series Gomer Pyle, U.S.M.C. He appeared in the films The Glenn Miller Story, Marty, Town Without Pity, The Satan Bug, and Hurricane.

1975–Golfer, Lee Trevino, is struck by lightning at the Western Open golf tournament in Oak Brook, Illinois.

1975–A chart topper: I’m Not in Love by 10 cc.

1975–Rod Serling, screenwriter, playwright, television producer, dies in Rochester, New York, at age 50. He is best known for his involvement with the TV series The Twilight Zone. After five years and 156 episodes (92 written by Serling), he grew weary of the series. In 1964, he decided to not oppose its third and final cancellation. Serling was active in politics, both on and off the screen, and helped form television industry standards. He was known as the "angry young man" of Hollywood, clashing with television executives and sponsors over a wide range of issues including censorship, racism, and war.

1978–In Regents of the University of California vs. Bakke, the U.S. Supreme Court bars quota systems in college admissions.

1979–OPEC raises oil prices by 24%.

1981–A powerful bomb explodes in Tehran, Iran, killing 73 officials of the Islamic Republican Party.

1982–Harry Mills, of The Mills Brothers, dies at age 70. The vocal group’s hits include Paper Doll, You Always Hurt the One You Love, The Glow-Worm, and Lazy River.

1987–For the first time in military history, a civilian population is targeted for chemical attack, when Iraqi warplanes bomb the Iranian town of Sardasht.

1988–Berry Gordy sells Motown Records to MCA for $61 million, ending the golden era of independent record label ownership.

1992–The Constitution of Estonia is signed into law.

1992–Two earthquakes hit on the West Coast of America. A 6.7 earthquake in Big Bear, California, causes some injuries, substantial damage, and landslides in the Big Bear Lake and Big Bear City areas. A 7.6 earthquake in Yucca Valley kills three people and injures over 400 others.

1994–Members of the Aum Shinrikyo cult release sarin gas at Matsumoto, Japan, killing 7 people, and injuring 660 others.

1994–Prince Hussein bin Al Abdullah II, Prince of Jordan, is born in Amman, Jordan. He is the heir apparent to the throne of the Kingdom of Jordan and the eldest child of King Abdullah II and Queen Rania.

1996–The Constitution of Ukraine is signed into law.

1997–George Harrison has an operation to remove a growth from his neck. The tumor proves to be benign.

1997–Mike Tyson vs. Evander Holyfield II: Tyson is disqualified in Round 3 for biting a piece out of Holyfield's ear.

2004–Sovereign power is handed to the interim government of Iraq by the Coalition Provisional Authority, ending the U.S. led rule of that nation.

2005–Canada the third country in the world to legalize same-sex marriage.

2008–Beijing National Stadium, also known as the Bird's Nest, opens for the 2008 Summer Olympics. The design for the stadium was inspired by Chinese ceramics. It employs steel beams to mask supports for the retractable roof, which creates an open structure resembling a bird's nest. The design for the National Stadium was crated by Swiss architectural firm Herzog & de Meuron. The Bird's Nest Stadium was the second most popular 21st century design in the Vanity Fair survey of world renowned architects.

2009–Honduran President Manuel Zelaya is ousted by a local military coup, following a failed request to hold a referendum to rewrite the Honduran Constitution.

2009–Television spokesman, Billy Mays, dies in his sleep of hypertensive heart disease in Tampa, Florida, at age 50. He was an American TV direct-response advertisement salesperson, most notable for promoting OxiClean, Orange Glo, Kaboom, and numerous other cleaning and maintenance products. He was such a household name that his catch-phrase was "Hi, Billy Mays here with..."

2009–Fred Travalena, comedian and impressionist, dies of lymphoma in Encino, California, at age 67. He was seen on the TV shows The Love Boat, Fantasy Island, The Tortellis, Murphy Brown, and Beverly Hills, 90210, He appeared in the films The Buddy Holly Story, Strange Hearts, and An American Carol.

2014–Actor, Meshach Taylor, dies of cancer in Altadena, California, at age 67. He was best known for the role of Anthony Bouvier on the TV sitcom Designing Women. He appeared in the films Damien: Omen II, The Howling, The Beast Within, Explorers, Warning Sign, One More Saturday Night, Mannequin, The Allnighter, House of Games, Class Act, and Tranced.

2015–Actor, Jack Carter, dies of respiratory failure in Beverly Hills, California, at age 93. He made appearances on many television shows, including The Dick Van Dyke Show, The Rockford Files, 7th Heaven, The Road West, Sanford and Son, Tattletales, Monk, and Desperate Housewives. He appeared in the films The Horizontal Lieutenant, Viva Las Vegas, Hustle, The Amazing Dobermans, The Glove, The Octagon, Alligator, History of the World Part I, The Funny Farm, Hambone and Hillie, Caged Fury, and Play It to the Bone.

2016–Durham and Oxford University geologists, working with a helium exploration company, discover a 54 billion cubic foot field of helium in the Tanzanian East African Rift Valley. Previously, helium has only been found in small quantities. This field, found using a new exploration approach connected to volcanic activity, could potentially meet the global demand for helium for several years.

2016–Explosions and gunfire during a terrorist attack are reported at Turkey's Istanbul Atatürk Airport. At least 41 people are killed and over 240 others are injured. Three suicide bombers led the attack.

2016–Guitarist, Scotty Moore, dies in Nashville, Tennessee, at age 84. He played guitar with Elvis Presley on the early sessions that helped define the rock ‘n’ roll formula. Moore played on many of Presley's most famous recordings, including That's All Right Mama, Good Rockin' Tonight, Milk Cow Blues Boogie, Baby Let's Play House, Heartbreak Hotel, Mystery Train, Blue Suede Shoes, Hound Dog, Too Much, Jailhouse Rock, and Hard Headed Woman. Moore also performed (and had additional small walk-on and speaking roles) with Elvis in four of his movies: Loving You, Jailhouse Rock, King Creole, and G.I. Blues.

2016–Football coach, Buddy Ryan, dies on his ranch in Shelbyville, Kentucky, at age 85. He was a coach in the National Football League (NFL) and American Football League (AFL). During his 35-season coaching career, Ryan served as the head coach of the Philadelphia Eagles and Arizona Cardinals, and the defensive coordinator of the Chicago Bears and the Houston Oilers of the NFL.

2016–Basketball coach, Pat Summitt, dies in an assisted-living facility Knoxville, Tennessee, at age 64. She was a college basketball head coach who achieved the most wins in NCAA basketball history of any coach, male or female. She served as the head coach of the University of Tennessee Lady Vols basketball team from 1974 to 2012, winning eight NCAA championships (an NCAA women's record when she retired). Summitt also won an Olympic Gold Medal as head coach of the 1984 U.S. women's basketball team.


PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Westminster Abbey; Henry VIII; a tomato; John Baker Omohundro; Oakwood Park; Richard Rogers; Junior Johnson; Dixie Clipper of Pan American Airways; Gilda Radner; Red Nichols; Christine Balfa; Frank Sutton; the Motown record label; Beijing National Stadium; Meshach Taylor; and Scotty Moore with Elvis Presley.

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