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1948–Bell Laboratories unveils the first transistor, revolutionizing electronic devices and ending the need for bulky, inefficient vacuum tubes. It will be a big help to the soon-to-be rock and roll craze, allowing kids to have small portable “transistor” radios independent of the family set.

BC 156–Emperor Wu of Han is born in Chang'an (present-day Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China).

296–Pope St. Marcellinus begins his reign.

350–Roman usurper, Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, is defeated and killed in Rome by troops of the usurper, Magnentius.

763–The Byzantine army of Emperor Constantine V defeats the Bulgarian forces in the Battle of Anchialus.

1470–Charles VIII, King of France (1483-1498), is born at Château d'Amboise, France.

1520–Spanish conquistadors, led by Hernán Cortés, fight their way out of Tenochtitlan.

1521–Spanish forces defeat a combined French and Navarrese army at the Battle of Noáin, during the Spanish conquest of Iberian Navarre.

1559–King Henry II of France is mortally wounded in a jousting match against Gabriel de Montgomery.

1670–Henrietta of England dies of cholera morbus (gastroenteritis) at Château de Saint Cloud in France, at age 26. Some people felt she was poisoned. She was the youngest daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland, and Ireland.

1688–The Immortal Seven issue the Invitation to William (continuing the English rebellion from Rome), which would culminate in the Glorious Revolution.

1708–Tekle Haymanot I of Ethiopia dies from stabbing by some of his late father's courtiers in Ethiopia, at age 24.

1769–Politician, Pierre Derbigny, is born Pierre Augustin Charles Bourguignon Derbigny in Laon, France. He was the sixth Governor of Louisiana. He only spent 10 months in office before he was killed in a carriage accident.

1794–Native American forces, under Shawnee Chief Blue Jacket, attack Fort Recovery in Ohio.

1805–The U.S. Congress organizes the Michigan Territory.

1834–The U.S. Congress creates Indian Territory (present-day state of Oklahoma).

1859–French acrobat, Charles Blondin, crosses Niagara Falls on a tightrope.

1860–A debate on evolution takes place at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History in Oxford, England.

1864–President Abraham Lincoln grants Yosemite Valley to the state of California for "public use, resort, and recreation."

1882–Charles Guiteau is hung in Washington, D.C., for the shooting death of President James Garfield.

1886–The first transcontinental train trip across Canada departs from Montreal. It arrives in Port Moody, British Columbia on July 4th.

1892–The Homestead Strike begins near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Also known as the Homestead Steel Strike, this was an industrial lockout and strike, culminating in a battle between strikers and private security agents on July 6, 1892. This was one of the most serious disputes in U.S. labor history.

1894–The Tower Bridge, across the Thames River, is officially opened in London, England.

1905–Albert Einstein publishes the article “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies,” in which he introduces special relativity.

1906–The U.S. Congress passes the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act.

1906–Actor-director, Anthony Mann, is born Emil Anton Bundesmann in San Diego, California. His films include Moonlight in Havana, T-Men, Border Incident, Winchester ‘73, Bend of the River, The Naked Spur, The Glenn Miller Story, The Far Country, The Man from Laramie, The Tin Star, God’s Little Acre, Cimarron, and El Cid.

1908–The Tunguska Event, the largest impact event on Earth in human recorded history, results in a massive explosion over Eastern Siberia.

1910–34th Wimbledon Mens Tennis: Anthony Wilding beats A. Gore (6-4, 7-5, 4-6, 6-2).

1910–27th Wimbledon Womens Tennis: Dorothea Chambers beats D. Boothby (6-2, 6-2).

1912–A cyclone hits Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, killing 28 people. It remains Canada's deadliest tornado event.

1914–Mahatma Gandhi is arrested, campaigning for Indian rights in South Africa. It is his first arrest for civil disobedience.

1917–During World War I, the Kingdom of Greece declares war on the Central Powers.

1917–Actress, Susan Hayward, is born in Flatbush, Brooklyn, New York. She appeared in the films Beau Geste, Adam Had Four Sons, Reap the Wild Wind, The Fighting Seabees, Smash-Up: The Story of a Woman, They Won’t Believe Me, Tulsa, My Foolish Heart, I’d Climb the Highest Mountain, Rawhide, I Can Get It for You Wholesale, David and Bathsheba, With a Song in My Heart, The Lusty Men, White Witch Doctor, I’ll Cry Tomorrow, Top Secret Affair, I Want to Live!, Woman Obsessed, Ada, Back Street, I Thank a Fool, Stolen Hours, Where Love Has Gone, and Valley of the Dolls.

1917–Singer, Lena Horne, is born Lena Mary Calhoun Horne in Brooklyn, New York. Horne joined the chorus of The Cotton Club at the age of 16 and became a nightclub performer before moving to Hollywood to work in films. She appeared in the films Cabin in the Sky, Stormy Weather, Thousands Cheer, I Dood It, Broaway Rhythm, Two Girls and a Sailor, Till the Clouds Roll By, Ziegfeld Follies, Words and Music, Meet Me in Las Vegas, and The Wiz.

1919–Inventor, Ed Yost, is born Paul Edward Yost in Bristow, Iowa. He developed and flew the first prototype of the modern hot-air balloon in a tethered flight: the envelope was plastic film and heat was provided by burning kerosene. He is referred to as the "Father of the Modern Day Hot-Air Balloon."

1921–President Warren G. Harding appoints former President, William Howard Taft, Chief Justice of the United States.

1922–In Washington D.C., U.S. Secretary of State, Charles Evans Hughes, and Dominican Ambassador, Francisco J. Peynado, sign the Hughes-Peynado agreement, which ends the United States occupation of the Dominican Republic.

1930–The first radio message is transmitted around the world by relay from New York to Holland, then to Java and then back to New York. The broadcast takes an eighth of a second.

1934–The Night of the Long Knives, Adolf Hitler's violent purge of his political rivals in Germany, takes place.

1934–Magician, Harry (Bouton) Blackstone, Jr., is born in Three Rivers, Michigan. He was the son of noted stage magician, Harry Bouton Blackstone, Sr. (also known as "The Great Blackstone"). As an infant, he was used as a prop in his father's act. Rather than utilize the routines his father developed, Blackstone developed his own and modernized his performance.

1936–Emperor Haile Selassie of Abyssinia appeals for aid to the League of Nations against Italy's invasion of his country.

1936–The novel, Gone with the Wind by Margaret Mitchell, is published.

1936–Actress-singer, Nancy Dussault, is born in Pensacola, Florida. She is best known for her role on the TV sitcom Too Close for Comfort.

1936–Actor, Tony Musante, is born Anthony Peter Musante in Bridgeport, Connecticut. He is best known for the starring role on the TV series Toma. He appeared in the films The Incident, Nowhere to Hide, The Pope of Greenwich Village, The Trap, The Yards, and We Own the Night.

1937–The world's first emergency telephone number, 999, is introduced in London, England.

1937–Larry Henley, of The Newbeats, is born Lawrence Joel Henley in Arp, Texas. The group had a big hit in the 1960s with Bread and Butter. He also co-wrote the song Wind Beneath My Wings with his partner, Jeff Silbar.

1938–Olympic athlete, Billy Mills, is born William Mervin Mills (Makata Taka Hela) in Pine Ridge, South Dakota. He won an Olympic gold medal in the 10,000 meter run at the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, becoming the only person from the Western hemisphere to win Olympic gold in this event. A former U.S. Marine, Billy Mills is a member of the Oglala Lakota (Sioux) Tribe. His story is told in the film Running Free.

1939–Frank Sinatra makes his first appearance with Harry James' band in Baltimore, Maryland.

1939–Tony Hatch, pianist, composer, and producer, is born Anthony Peter Hatch in Pinner, Middlesex, England. As Petula Clark’s producer, they collaborated on a series of French language recordings for Vogue Records. Hatch was also one of her songwriting partners, in addition to supplying English lyrics for songs she had composed with French lyricists. Their hits include Downtown, I Know a Place, Round Every Corner, My Love, A Sign of the Times, Who Am I?, Colour My World, I Couldn't Live Without Your Love, and Don't Sleep in the Subway.

1940–The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is established.

1941–Mike Leander, a frequent collaborator with Marianne Faithfull on her 1960s recordings, is born Michael George Farr in Walthamstow, East London, England. He also worked with The Rolling Stones, Joe Cocker, Billy Fury, Marc Bolan, Van Morrison, Alan Price, Peter Frampton, and Lulu.

1943–Florence (Glenda) Ballard, of The Supremes, is born in Detroit, Michigan. She sang on 16 “Top 40” singles with the group, including 10 #1 hits.

1948–Bell Laboratories unveils the first transistor, revolutionizing electronic devices and ending the need for bulky, inefficient vacuum tubes. It will be a big help to the soon-to-be rock and roll craze, allowing kids to have small portable “transistor” radios independent of the family set.

1950–Actor, Leonard Whiting, is born in London, England. He is best known for his role as Romeo in the 1968 Franco Zeffirelli film version of Romeo and Juliet. Whiting ended his film career, for the most part, in the mid-1970s.

1951–Jazz musician, Stanley Clarke, is born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.He is known for his innovative and influential work on double bass and electric bass, as well as for his numerous film and television scores.

1953–The first Chevrolet Corvette rolls off the assembly line in Flint, Michigan.

1953–Hal Lindes, of Dire Straights, is born in Monterey, California.

1955–Actor, David Alan Grier, is born in Detroit, Michigan. He is best known for his work on the sketch comedy TV show In Living Color. He appeared in the films Streamers, A Soldier’s Story, Amazon Women on the Moon, Off Limits, I’m Gonna Git You Sucka, Me and Him, Loose Cannons, Blankman, Boomerang, Tales from the Hood, and Jumanji.

1956–A TWA Super Constellation and a United Airlines DC-7 (Flight 718) collide above the Grand Canyon in Arizona, killing all 128 people on board the two planes.

1959–A U.S. Air Force F-100 Super Sabre from Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, crashes into a nearby elementary school, killing 11 students and six residents from the local neighborhood.

1959–Actor, Vincent (Philip) D'Onofrio, is born in Brooklyn, New York. He appeared in the films Full Metal Jacket, Adventures in Babysitting, Mystic Pizza, Signs of Life, Crooked Hearts, Dying Young, Fires Within, JFK, The Player, Being Human, Household Saints, Mr. Wonderful, Ed Wood, Strange Days, The Whole Wide World, Feeling Minnesota, Men in Black, That Championship Season, Steal This Movie!, The Break-Up, and Cadillac Records.

1960–Zaire (formerly the Belgian Congo) declares independence from Belgium.

1961–Inventor, Lee de Forest, dies from heart trouble in Hollywood, California, at age 87. He invented the Audion (triode) vacuum tube, the first practical amplification device. Although he had only a limited understanding of how it worked, it was the foundation of the field of electronics, making possible radio broadcasting, long distance telephone lines, and talking motion pictures.

1963–A car bomb, intended for Mafia boss, Salvatore Greco, kills seven police officers and military personnel near Palermo, Italy.

1966–The National Organization for Women (NOW) is founded.

1966–The Beatles perform a concert at the Nippon Budokan Hall, Tokyo, Japan. This performance is filmed, with The Beatles wearing dark suits. The following day's first performance will also be filmed, with The Beatles wearing light suits. The strict police presence casts a pall on the Japanese concerts, with 3,000 police observing each concert played in front of 10,000 fans.

1966–Boxer, Mike Tyson, is born Michael Gerard Tyson in Brooklyn, New York. He is a former undisputed Heavyweight Champion of the world and holds the record as the youngest boxer to win the WBC, WBA and IBF heavyweight titles at age 20. Tyson won his first 19 professional bouts by knockout, 12 of them in the first round. In 1990, he lost his titles to underdog James "Buster" Douglas, by a knockout in Round 10. He was married to actress, Robin Givens.

1967–The first concert of The Monkees at the Empire Pool, Wembley, England, is presented by NEMS Enterprises.

1968–Pope Paul VI issues the Credo of the People of God.

1971–The crew of the Soviet Soyuz 11 spacecraft are killed when their air supply escapes through a faulty valve.

1971–Ohio ratifies the 26th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, reducing the voting age to 18, thereby putting the amendment into effect.

1971–The Fillmore closes in San Francisco, California.

1971–Actress, Monica Potter, is born Monica Gregg Brokaw in Cleveland, Ohio. She is known for her roles in the TV shows Boston Legal and Parenthood. She appeared in the films Bulletproof, Con Air, A Cool, Dry Place, Without Limits, Patch Adams, head Over Heels, Along Came a Spider, I’m with Lucy.

1972–The first leap second is added to the UTC time system.

1972–Opryland USA opens. The $28 million park has six theme areas: Plaza, New Orleans, Riverside, American West, The Mod Area, and Lakeside. Rides at the opening include: Flume Zoom, New Orleans Sky Ride, Antique Carousel, Little Deuce Coupe, and Raft Ride.

1973–A chart topper: Give Me Love (Give Me Peace on Earth) by George Harrison.

1977–The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization disbands.

1983–The Everly Brothers announce that they have settled their differences and will reunite for a concert at London's Royal Albert Hall in September. The duo had split up in 1973.

1984–Canada's Prime Minister, Pierre Trudeau, resigns after 16 years in office.

1984–Playwright, Lillian Hellman, dies of a heart attack at her home in Martha’s Vinyard, Tisbury, Massachusetts, at age 79. She was a dramatist and screenwriter known for her left-wing sympathies and political activism and was blacklisted by the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) at the height of the anti-communist campaigns of 1947-1952. Hellman’s works include The Children’s Hour, The Dark Angel, Dead End, The North Star, The Little Foxes, and Toys in the Attic.

1985–Thirty-nine American hostages from the hijacked TWA Flight 847 are freed in Beirut, Lebanon, after being held for 17 days.

1986–The U.S. Supreme Court rules in Bowers v. Hardwick that states can outlaw homosexual acts between consenting adults.

1989–The surviving Beatles sue for an injunction against Dave Clark, formerly of The Dave Clark Five, banning him from selling copies of the old Ready Steady Go! TV show featuring The Beatles. The case is later settled out of court in Clark’s favor.

1990–East and West Germany merge their economies, with the East adopting the Deutschemark as its currency.

1993–George "Spanky" McFarland, child actor in the Our Gang and The Little Rascals comedies, dies of cardiac arrest in Grapevine, Texas, at age 64.

1995–Actor, Gale Gordon, dies of lung cancer in Escondido, California, at age 89. He is best known for his various roles on the sitcom I Love Lucy, and as bank executive Theodore J. Mooney on The Lucy Show. When Lucille Ball ended her career, Gordon was the only actor to have co-starred or guest-starred in every weekly series (radio and television) she had produced since the 1940s.

1997–The United Kingdom transfers sovereignty over Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China.

2001–Guitarist, Chet Atkins, dies of cancer in Nashville, Tennessee, at age 77. He is the music figure most responsible for the "Nashville Sound" of the 1960s. His trademark picking style and musicianship brought him admirers within and outside the country scene, in America and around the world. His singles include Mr. Sandman and Yakety Axe.

2003–Comedian, Buddy Hackett, dies of a stroke in Malibu, California, at age 78. He appeared in the films Walking My Baby Back Home, God’s Little Acre, All Hands on Deck, The Music Man, The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm, It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World, Muscle Beach Party, The Love Bug, and Scrooged.

2005–Spain legalizes same-sex marriage.

2009–Actor-singer, Harve Presnell, dies of pancreatic cancer in Santa Monica, California, at age 75. He appeared in the films The Unsinkable Molly Brown, The Glory Guys, When the Boys Meet the Girls, Paint Your Wagon, Blood Bath, Fargo, Larger Than Life, Face/Off, Saving Private Ryan, Patch Adams, The Family Man, Old School, Flags of Our Fathers, and Evan Almighty.

2010–Benigno Aquino III is sworn into office as the 15th President of the Philippines.

2012–Politician, Yitzhak Shamir, dies of Alzheimer's disease in Tel Aviv, Israel, at age 96. He was the seventh Prime Minister of Israel, serving two terms.

2013–Mass protests are held in Egypt.

2013–Nineteen firefighters die controlling a wildfire in Yarnell, Arizona.

2014–Film director and actor, Paul Mazursky, dies of pulmonary cardiac arrest in Los Angeles, California, at age 84. As an actor, he appeared in the films Blackboard Jungle, I Love You Alice B. Toklas, History of the World: Part I, Punchline, Love Affair, and Why Do Fools Fall in Love. His films include Bob & Carol & Ted & Alice, Alex in Wonderland, Blume in Love, Harry and Tonto, Next Stop Greenwich Village, An Unmarried Woman, Tempest, Moscow on the Hudson, Down and Out in Beverly Hills, Scenes from a Mall, and Coast to Coast.

2015–A Hercules C-130 military aircraft with 113 people on board crashes in a residential area in Medan, Indonesia, killing in at least 116 people.

2016–Rodrigo Duterte is inaugurated as President of the Philippines and Leni Robredo becomes Vice President.

2016–The Hershey Company rejects a $23 billion takeover bid by rival, Mondelez International, maker of Oreo cookies and Cadbury chocolates.

2016–After being charged with offenses including money laundering and marijuana trafficking, the police find $24 million stashed in a wall of the home of 44-year-old Luis Hernandez-Gonzalez in Miami, Florida. The cash was stuffed in five-gallon Home Depot buckets in a secret compartment guarded by a statuette of St. Lazarus.

2016–The FDA warns people not to eat raw cookie dough or cake batter of any kind due to an ongoing outbreak of illnesses related to a strain of E. coli bacteria found in some batches of flour. General Mills voluntarily recalled 10 million pounds of flour sold under the Gold Medal, Gold Medal Wondra, and Signature Kitchen brands.

2017–A temperature of 128.7°F is recorded during the heat wave in Ahvaz, Khuzestan Province, breaking Iran's previous record and becoming one of the highest temperatures ever recorded on Earth.

2018–Darin Hodge, restaurant manager at Stanley Park Teahouse in Vancouver, Canada, is fired after refusing to serve a man wearing a “Make America Great Again” (MAGA) hat.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Charles VIII, King of France; Yosemite Valley; Anthony Mann; Susan Hayward; Gone with the Wind by Margaret Mitchell; Tony Hatch; 1953 Chevrolet Corvette; Vincent D'Onofrio; The Monkees performing at Empire Pool, Wembley, England; Opryland USA logo; Lillian Hellman; Spanky McFarland; and Paul Mazursky.

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