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1919–Film critic, Pauline Kael, is born in Petaluma, California. She was raised on a farm by her father, a Polish Jew, who loved going to the movies. She went to college at the University of California at Berkeley, and published her first movie review in the magazine City Lights. She contributed to dozens of magazines while she ran an art film theater in Berkeley, and broadcast reviews on the radio. She moved to New York City and freelanced for Life, Mademoiselle, and McCalls magazines and began her association with The New Yorker in 1968, where she remained until she retired in 1991.



987–Louis IV is crowned King of France.

1179–The Norwegian Battle of Kalvskinnet outside Nidaros, Norway. Earl Erling Skakke is killed, and the battle changes the tide of the civil wars.

1269–King Louis IX of France orders all Jews found in public without an identifying yellow badge to be fined 10 livres of silver.

1301–Prince Morikuni of Japan is born. He was the ninth shogun of the Kamakura shogunate of Japan.

1306–The Earl of Pembroke's army defeats Robert the Bruce's Scottish army at the Battle of Methven.

1566–King James VI of Scotland (1567-1625) and James I of England and Ireland (1603-1625), is born James Stuart at Edinburgh Castle, Scotland. The kingdoms of Scotland and England were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments, judiciary, and laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union. At 57 years and 246 days, James's reign in Scotland was longer than those of any of his predecessors. He achieved most of his aims in Scotland, but faced great difficulties in England, having repeated conflicts with the English Parliament. Under James, the "Golden Age" of Elizabethan literature and drama continued, with writers such as William Shakespeare, John Donne, Ben Jonson, and Sir Francis Bacon contributing to a flourishing literary culture. James sponsored the translation of the Bible that was named after him: the Authorised King James Version.

1586–English colonists leave Roanoke Island (in present-day North Carolina), after failing to establish England's first permanent settlement in North America.

1747–Nadir Shah of Persia (1736-1747), is assassinated by sword in Quchan (present-day Khorasan, Iran). He was one of the most powerful rulers in Iranian history.

1794–Farmer, Richard H. Lee, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, dies in Westmoreland County, Virginia, at age 62. He is best known for the motion in the Second Continental Congress calling for the colonies' independence from Great Britain. He also served a one-year term as the President of the Continental Congress, and was a U.S. Senator from Virginia from 1789 to 1792.

1816–The Battle of Seven Oaks takes place between North West Company and Hudson's Bay Company, near Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

1816–A violent thunderstorm hits Lake Geneva. Living on its banks at the Villa Diodati are Lord Byron and his entourage, as well as the poet, P.B. Shelley, his wife-to-be Mary Godwin, and her stepsister Jane (Claire) Clairmont, who is carrying Byron's child. They start talking about horror stories they want to write. Byron talks about vampire stories, which eventually would be published under the title The Vampyre. Mary Godwin starts brainstorming about a scientist, a Modern Prometheus, who would find the secret to reanimating dead tissue. From this, she would write the book Frankenstein.

1846–The first baseball game using modern rules is played in Hoboken, New Jersey.

1850–Princess Louise of the Netherlands marries Crown Prince Karl of Sweden-Norway.

1862–The U.S. Congress prohibits slavery in United States territories, nullifying Dred Scott vs. Sandford.

1865–Over two years after the Emancipation Proclamation, slaves in Galveston, Texas, are informed of their freedom.

1867–Maximilian I of the Second Mexican Empire is executed by firing squad in Querétaro, Querétaro.

1870–After all of the southern states are formally readmitted to the United States of America, the Confederate States of America no longer exists.

1875–The Herzegovinian rebellion against the Ottoman Empire begins.

1893–Madeleine Astor, survivor of the sinking of the RMS Titanic, is born Madeleine Talmage Force in Brooklyn, New York. She was the second wife and widow of millionaire, John Jacob Astor IV.

1896–Wallis Simpson (the Duchess of Windsor), is born Bessie Wallis Warfield in Blue Ridge Summit, Pennsylvania. She was married to Earl Winfield Spencer, Jr., Ernest Aldrich Simpson, and Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor. She was an American socialite and Prince Edward (formerly King Edward VIII), abdicated his throne to marry her. In the 1950s and 1960s, she and the Duke shuttled between Europe and the United States, living a life of leisure as society celebrities. After the Duke's death in 1972, the Duchess lived in seclusion, and was rarely seen in public. Her private life has been a source of much speculation, and she remains a controversial figure in British history.

1897–Comedian, Moe Howard, of The Three Stooges, is born Moses Harry Horowitz in Brooklyn, New York. His distinctive hairstyle came about when he was a boy and cut off his curls with a pair of scissors, producing a ragged shape approximating a bowl cut. As a member of The Three Stooges, he appeared in dozens of comedy shorts in the 1940s and 1950s. He also appeared in the films Snow White and The Three Stooges, The Three Stooges Meet Hercules, The Three Stooges in Orbit, The Three Stooges Go Around the World in a Daze, It’s a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World, The Outlaws is Coming, and Kook’s Tour. His brothers are Shemp Howard and Curley Howard, also members of The Three Stooges. He was married to Helen Schonberger, a cousin of magician, Harry Houdini.

1902–Orchestra leader, Guy Lombardo, is born Gaetano Alberto Lombardo in London, Ontario, Canada. Forming The Royal Canadians in 1924, with his brothers Carmen, Lebert, and Victor (and other musicians from his hometown), Lombardo led the group to international success. In 1928, he started the practice of playing the song Auld Lang Syne on New Year’s Eve, and for 20 years his orchestra performed on televised New Year’s Eve specials.

1903–Baseball player, Lou Gehrig, is born Henry Louis Gehrig in New York, New York. He was a first baseman who played 17 seasons in Major League Baseball for the New York Yankees from 1923 to 1939. Gehrig was the first MLB player to have his uniform number retired, and he was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1939. In 1939, he was diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a disorder now commonly referred to as Lou Gehrig's disease in North America. He made his iconic "Luckiest Man on the Face of the Earth" speech at the original Yankee Stadium.

1908–Actress, Mildred Natwick, is born in Baltimore, Maryland. She appeared in the films The Enchanted Cottage, 3 Godfathers, The Kissing Bandit, She Wore a Yellow Ribbon, The Quiet Man, The Trouble with Harry, The Court Jester, Teenage Rebel, Tammy and the Bachelor, Barefoot in the Park, Daisy Miller, Kiss Me Goodbye, and Dangerous Liaisons.

1910–The first Father's Day is celebrated in Spokane, Washington.

1911–The first motion-picture censorship board is established in Pennsylvania.

1912–The U.S. government adopts the rule that establishes an eight-hour work day.

1913–The Natives Land Act is implemented in South Africa.

1914–Bluegrass musician, Lester (Raymond) Flatt, is born in Duncan's Chapel, Overton County, Tennessee. He was a guitarist and mandolinist, best known for his collaboration with banjo picker, Earl Scruggs, in the The Foggy Mountain Boys, popularly known as Flatt and Scruggs. They first reached a mainstream audience in the early 1960s, with their performance of The Ballad of Jed Clampett, the theme song for the TV comedy The Beverly Hillbillies.

1916–Actor, Pat Buttram, is born Maxwell Emmett Buttram in Addison, Alabama. He is best known as the sidekick of Gene Autry, and for the role of Mr. Haney in the TV series Green Acres. He worked as a voice actor in the films The Aristocats, The Rescuers, The Fox and the Hound, Who Framed Roger Rabbit?, and Rugrats.

1917–During World War I, King George V orders the British royal family to dispense with German titles and surnames. The family takes the name "Windsor."

1919–Film critic, Pauline Kael, is born in Petaluma, California. She was raised on a chicken farm by her father, a Polish Jew, who loved going to the movies. She went to college at the University of California at Berkeley, and published her first movie review in the magazine City Lights. She contributed to dozens of magazines while she ran an art film theater in Berkeley, and broadcast reviews on the radio. She moved to New York City and freelanced for Life, Mademoiselle, and McCall’s magazines and began her association with The New Yorker in 1968, where she remained until she retired in 1991. She is often regarded as the most influential American film critic of her day.

1919–Singer-songwriter, Dave Lambert, of the trio Lambert, Hendricks & Ross, is born David Alden Lambert in Boston, Massachusetts. He was a jazz lyricist and an originator of vocalese. Lambert spent a lifetime experimenting with the human voice, and expanding the possibilities of its use within jazz.

1921–Actor, Louis Jourdan, is born Louis Robert Gendre in Marseilles, France. He appeared in the films Letter from an Unknown Woman, Madame Bovary, The Happy Time, Three Coins in a Fountain, Julie, Gigi, The Best of Everything, Can-Can, Irma la Douce, Made in Paris, A Flea in Her Ear, Octopussy, and Year of the Comet.

1928–Tommy DeVito, of The Four Seasons, is born in Belleville, New Jersey.

1928–Actress, Nancy Marchand, is born in Buffalo, New York. She appeared in the films The Bachelor Party, The Bells of St. Mary’s, Me, Natalie, The Hospital, Look Homeward, Angel, The Bostonians, The Naked Gun: From the Files of Police Squad!, Regarding Henry, Jefferson in Paris, Reckless, and Sabrina.

1930–Actress, Gena Rowlands, is born Virginia Cathryn Rowlands in Madison, Wisconsin. She appeared in the film The High Cost of Loving, Shadows, Lonely Are the Brave, A Child is Waiting, Tony Rome, Faces, Machine Gun McCain, Minnie and Moskovitz, A Woman Under the Influence, Opening Night, The Brink’s Job, Gloria, Tempest, An Early Frost, Light of Day, Another Woman, Once Around, Unhook the Stars, Hope Floats, and The Notebook. She was married to actor-director, John Cassavetes.

1932–Actress, Pier Angeli, is born Anna Maria Pierangeli in Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy. She apeared in the films Teresa, The Light Touch, The Story of Three Loves, The Silver Chalice, Meet Me in Las Vegas, Somebody Up There Likes Me, Merry Andrew, SOS Pacific, The Angry Silence, The Last Days of Sodom and Gomorrah, and Battle of the Bulge. She was married to singer, Vic Damone, and Italian composer, Armando Trovaioli.

1933–France grants Leon Trotsky political asylum.

1934–The Communications Act of 1934 establishes the United States Federal Communications Commission (FCC).

1940–Racecar driver, Shirley Muldowney, is born Shirley Ann Roque in Burlington, Vermont. She is a pioneer in professional auto racing, known as the "First Lady of Drag Racing." She was the first woman to receive a license from the National Hot Rod Association (NHRA) to drive a Top Fuel dragster. She won the NHRA Top Fuel championship in 1977, 1980 and 1982, becoming the first person to win two and three Top Fuel titles. She won a total of 18 NHRA national events. She was married to Jack Muldowney, who built her first dragster. Her story is told in the film Heart Like a Wheel.

1942–Norman Jean Baker (Marilyn Monroe) marries James Dougherty.

1942–(Elaine) Spanky MacFarlane, of Spanky and Our Gang, is born in Peoria, Illinois. The vocal group had big hits with Sunday Will Never Be the Same and Lazy Day.

1943–Race riots occur in Beaumont, Texas.

1945–Writer, Tobias Wolff, is born Tobias Jonathan Ansell Wolff in Birmingham, Alabama. Wolff is best known for his work in two genres: the short story and the memoir. His first short story collection, In the Garden of the North American Martyrs, was published in 1981. Wolff's second short story collection, Back in the World, was published in 1985. His story is told in the film This Boy's Life.

1947–Writer, (Ahmed) Salman Rushdie, is born in Bombay, Bombay Presidency, British India. He is best known for The Satanic Verses. He was married to novelist Marianne Wiggins, and model-TV personality, Padma Lakshmi.

1948–Actress, Phylicia Rashad, is born Phylicia Ayers-Allen in Houston, Texas. She is best known for her role on the TV sitcom The Cosby Show. Her sisiter is choreographer, Debbie Allen. She was married to singer, Victor Willis, and football player-sportscaster, Ahmad Rashad.

1949–The first ever NASCAR race is held at Charlotte Motor Speedway in Concord, North Carolina.

1950–Ann (Dustin) Wilson, of Heart, is born in San Diego, California. Regarded as one of the best female vocalists in rock music history, Wilson was listed as one of the "Top Heavy Metal Vocalists of All Time" by Hit Parader magazine in 2006. The band’s hits include Crazy on You, Magic Man, Dreamboat Annie, and Barracuda. Her sister is musician, Nancy Wilson, also in the group Heart.

1952–The game show, I've Got A Secret, debuts on CBS-TV.

1953–Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are executed (for conspiracy to commit espionage) at the Sing Sing Correctional Facility in Ossining, New York.

1954–Talent mamager, Lou Pearlman, is born Louis Jay Pearlman in Flushing, New York. On May 21, 2008, Pearlman was sentenced to 25 years in prison on charges of conspiracy, money laundering, and making false statements during a bankruptcy proceeding. He had earlier been the manager of successful 1990s boy bands Backstreet Boys and NSYNC.

1954–Actress, (Mary) Kathleen Turner, is born in Springfield, Missouri. She appeared in the films Body Heat, The Man with Two Brains, Romancing the Stone, Crimes of Passion, Prizzi’s Honor, Jewel of the Nile, Peggy Sue Got Married, The Accidental Tourist, The War of the Roses, V.I. Warshawski, Naked in New York, Serial Mom, Beautiful, and Marley & Me.

1956–Jerry Lewis and Dean Martin end their partnership as Martin & Lewis.

1956–Industrialist, Thomas John Watson, Sr., dies in New York, New York, at age 82. He served as the Chairman and CEO of International Business Machines (IBM), overseeing the company's growth into an international force from 1914 to 1956.

1960–Country singer, Loretta Lynn, records Honky Tonk Girl.

1961–Kuwait declares independence from the United Kingdom.

1962–Singer and choreographer, Paula (Julie) Abdul, is born in Van Nuys, California. She had a big hit with Straight Up. Her work as a choreographer includes the films Private School, Can’t Buy Me Love, Big, Coming to America, The Doors, Jerry Maguire, and American Beauty. She was a judge on the TV singing competition show American Idol (2002-2009). She was married to actor, Emilio Estevez.

1964–The Civil Rights Act is approved after surviving an 83-day filibuster in the U.S. Senate. It is the most far-reaching civil-rights legislation to date.

1964–The first topless bar in America opens in San Francisco, California.

1964–During an education debate in the House of Commons, Tory MP Charles Curran, a conservative member of Britain's parliament, cites John Lennon's book, In His Own Write, as proof of the poor education that Liverpool students are receiving. He states that John Lennon "has a feeling for words and storytelling, but he is in a state of pathetic near-illiteracy." Clearly, the joke was on them.

1964–Radio and television peronality, Laura (Anne) Ingraham, is born in Glastonbury, Connecticut. Her nationally syndicated talk show, The Laura Ingraham Show, airs throughout America on Courtside Entertainment. Ingraham is also the official guest host for Fox News Channel's The O'Reilly Factor and a contributor for This Week on ABC News.

1966–Shiv Sena, a political party in India, is founded in Mumbai.

1966–Actor, Ed Wynn, dies of throat cancer in Beverly Hills, California, at age 79. He was seen in many TV shows including Playhouse 90, Wagon Train, Rawhide, The Twilight Zone, and The Red Skelton Hour. He appeared in the films Stage Door Canteen, Marjorie Morningstar, The Diary of Ann Frank, Cinderfella, The Absent-Minded Professor, Babes in Toyland, Son of Flubber, Mary Poppins, Dear Brigitte, The Greatest Story Ever Told, That Darn Cat!, and The Gnome-Mobile.

1967–Paul McCartney is interviewed by an ITN reporter about his statement printed in Life magazine admitting that he had taken LSD.

1967–Actress, Mia Sara, is born Mia Sarapochiello in Brooklyn Heights, New York. She appeared in the films Legend, Ferris Bueller’s Day Off, Queenie, A Stranger Among Us, Timecop, and The Maddening.

1969–Television personality, Lara Spencer, is born Lana Christina Von Seeley-Schmidt in Garden City, New York. She is best known for being the co-anchor for ABC's Good Morning America. She hosts the show Flea Market Flip seen on both HGTV and the Great American Country channel.

1970–Edward Heath becomes Prime Minister of Great Britain.

1970–The Patent Cooperation Treaty is signed. It provides a unified procedure for filing patent applications to protect inventions in each of its contracting states.

1975–Actor, Hugh Dancy, is born Hugh Michael Horace Dancy in Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, England. He appeared in the films Black Hawk Down, Tempo, Ella Enchanted, The Jane Austin Book Club, Evening, Blood & Chocolate, Confessions of a Shopaholic, Adam, Our Idiot Brother, and Hysteria. He is married to actress, Claire Danes.

1975–Mobster, Sam Giancana, dies from assassination by gunshots at his home in Oak Park, Illinois, at age 67. He was killed shortly before he was scheduled to appear before the Church Committee investigating CIA and Cosa Nostra collusion in plots to assassinate President John F. Kennedy.

1976–A chart topper: Silly Love Songs by Paul McCartney and Wings.

1978–The comic strip, “Garfield,” created by Jim Davis, makes its debut.

1978–Actress, Zoe Saldana, is born Zoe Yadira Saldaña Nazario in Passaic, New Jersey. She appeared in the films Center Stage, Get Over It, Crossroads, Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl, The Terminal, The Heart Specialist, After Sex, Star Trek, The Losers, and Death at a Funeral.

1980–Singer, Donna Summer, becomes the first act to sign with Geffen Records, the new label started by David Geffen. Later in the year, Geffen will be the lucky one who signs John Lennon for his last LP Double Fantasy.

1982–In one of the first militant attacks by Hezbollah, David S. Dodge, President of the American University of Beirut, is kidnapped.

1985–Members of the Revolutionary Party of Central American Workers, dressed as Salvadoran soldiers, attack the Zona Rosa area of San Salvador.

1987–Basque separatist group ETA commits one of its most violent attacks, in which a bomb is set off in a supermarket (Hipercor, in Spain) killing 21 people and injuring 45 others.

1989–Newspaper columnist, Hy Gardner, dies in Miami, Florida, at age 80. He was an entertainment reporter and syndicated columnist for The New York Herald Tribune, host of Hy Gardner Calling, The Hy Gardner Show, and Celebrity Party.

1990–The Communist Party of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic is founded in Moscow.

1990–The current international law defending indigenous peoples, Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention 1989, is ratified for the first time by Norway.

1991–The Soviet occupation of Hungary ends.

1991–Colombian drug baron, Pablo Escobar, surrenders to police.

1991–Actress, Jean Arthur, dies of heart failure in Carmel, California, at age 90. She appeared in the films Whirlpool, Diamond Jim, Mr. Deeds Goes to Town, The Plainsman, You Can’t Take It with You, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, Too Many Husbands, The Devil and Miss Jones, The Talk of the Town, Shane, and State Fair.

1992–Evander Holyfield defeats Larry Holmes in Round 12 for the Heavyweight Boxing Championship.

1993–Author, William Golding, dies of heart failure in Perranarworthal, Cornwall, England, at age 81. He is best known for his novel Lord of the Flies.

1994–Ernesto Samper is elected President of Colombia.

1997–Singer, Bobby Helm, dies of emphysema and asthma in Martinsville, Indiana, at age 63. He is best known for the hits My Special Angel and Jingle Bell Rock.

1998–A medical study is released stating that smoking more than doubles the risk of developing dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease.

2000–The 54th NBA Championship: The Los Angeles Lakers beat the Indiana Pacers, 4 games to 2.

2007–The al-Khilani Mosque bombing in Baghdad kills 78 people and injures 218 others.

2009–Mass riots involving over 10,000 people and 10,000 police officers break out in Shishou, China, over the dubious circumstances surrounding the death of a local chef.

2009–The Pakistani Armed Forces open Operation Rah-e-Nijat against the Taliban and other Islamist rebels in the South Waziristan area of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas.

2010–The Wedding of Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden, and Daniel Westling is held at Storkyrkan in Stockholm.

2012–WikiLeaks founder, Julian Assange, requests asylum in London's Ecuatorian Embassy for fear of extradition to the U.S. after publication of previously classified documents, including footage of civilian killings by the U.S. Army.

2012–Actor, Richard Lynch, dies in Yucca Valley, California, at age 72. Lynch's distinct scarred appearance made him a popular bad guy, and he can be seen in more than 100 film and television performances. The scars came from an incident in New York's Central Park in 1967: while under the influence of drugs, he set himself on fire, burning more than 70% of his body. He spent a year in recovery, quit drugs, and ultimately began training at The Actors Studio. He appeared in the films Scarecrow, The Seven-Ups, The Happy Hooker, Deathsport, The Formula, Savage Dawn, Invasion U.S.A., The Barbarians, Little Nikita, Trancers II, and Halloween.

2013–Actor, James Gandolfini, dies of a heart attack in Rome, Italy, at age 51. He is best known for the role of Tony Soprano on HBO's series The Sopranos. He appeared in the films The Last Boy Scout, True Romance, Mr. Wonderful, Angie, Terminal Velocity, Crimson Tide, Get Shorty, The Juror, She’s So Lovely, Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil, A Civil Action, and 8mm.

2013–Country singer, Slim Whitman, dies of heart failure in Ocean Park, Florida, at age 90. Known for his yodel and high falsetto, Whitman had a string of hits from the mid-1960s and into the 1970s, and became known to a new generation of fans through television direct marketing in the 1980s.

2014–Felipe VI, Prince of Asturias, rises to the Spanish throne following the abdication of his father, Juan Carlos I.

2014–Songwriter, Gerry Goffin, dies at age 75. After meeting in 1958, Goffin and his partner, Carole King, wrote and composed more than 50 ”Top 40” hit songs that were recorded by performers such as The Drifters, The Chiffons, The Animals, and The Beatles.

2015–A man who is stranded trying to cross a flooded highway in Ardmore, Oklahoma, is saved after country singer, Blake Shelton, comes to the rescue in his Dodge pick-up truck. Shelton then drives the man (Roho Hartman) home.

2016–Heavy rain in central Java causes landslides and flooding, killing 24 people and leaving at least 26 others missing in an Indonesian province.

2016–A pilot dies after his single-engine, 20-foot wingspan plane goes down on BART tracks in Hayward, California.

2016–Actor, Anton Yelchin, dies in a freak car-related accident in Studio City, California, at age 27. He is found by friends pinned between his car and the iron security gate of his home. He is best known for portraying Pavel Chekov in the Star Trek reboot series, appearing in Star Trek, Star Trek Into Darkness, and he will appear posthumously in Star Trek Beyond (2016). He also appeared in the films Along Came a Spider, Fierce People, Middle of Nowhere, and Terminator Salvation.

2016–The 70th NBA Championship: The Cleveland Cavaliers beat the Golden State Warriors, 4 games to 3.


PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: King James VI of Scotland and James I of England; the Frankenstein monster; Wallis Simpson; Guy Lombardo; Mildred Natwick; Lambert, Hendricks & Ross; Louis Jourdan; Pier Angeli; Shirley Muldowney; Tobias Wolff; the cast of I've Got a Secret on the cover ot TV Guide; Loretta Lynn; Ed Wynn; Hugh Dancy; Zoe Saldana; Jean Arthur; Bobby Helm; Julian Assange; and Gerry Goffin.

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