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1942–Songwriter, singer, and musician, Brian (Douglas) Wilson, is born in Hawthorne, California. He and his brothers, Dennis and Carl Wilson, formed The Beach Boys with cousin, Mike Love, and friend, Al Jardine. They created the California sound now known as “surf music,” with such hits as Surfin' USA, I Get Around, and California Girls. Brian gave up touring in 1965, due to nervous exhaustion, but continued on as the group's writer-producer. He had a solo single in 1966, Caroline No, which also appeared on his masterwork album Pet Sounds. Into the 21st century, Brian Wilson has continued to tour around the world and produce new recordings for his multi-generational fan base. He is one of the most respected artists in pop music history. His daughters are pop singers, Carnie Wilson and Wendy Wilson.

451–The Germans and Romans defeat Atilla the Hun at Catalarinische Fields.

465–Emperor Wencheng of Northern Wei dies at age 25.

840–Roman Emperor, Louis the Pious, dies in Ingelheim am Rhein, Germany, at age 61. As the only surviving adult son of Charlemagne and Hildegard, he became the sole ruler of the Franks after his father's death in 814.

1005–Ali az-Zahir, Egyptian Caliph, is born. He was the Seventh Caliph of the Fatimids (1021-1036). He assumed the Caliphate after the disappearance of his father, Tariqu I-Hakim bi Amr al-Lah.

1248–The University of Oxford receives its Royal charter.

1566–Sigismund III Vasa, Polish and Swedish King, is born at Gripsholm Castle in Sweden.

1605–Feodor II of Russia dies of murder by strangulation at Moscow Kremlin in Russia, at age 16.

1620–The Battle of Höchst takes place during the Thirty Years' War.

1631–The Irish village of Baltimore is attacked by Algerian pirates.

1652–Tarhoncu Ahmed Pasha is appointed Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire.

1685–James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, declares himself King of England at Bridgwater, Somerset, England.

1756–A British garrison of 146 soldiers is imprisoned in the Black Hole of Calcutta.

1782–U.S. Congress approves the Great Seal of the United States and the eagle as its symbol.

1787–Oliver Ellsworth moves at the Federal Convention to call the government the “United States.”

1789–Deputies of the French Third Estate take the Tennis Court Oath, vowing "not to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the kingdom is established." It is a pivotal event in the early days of the French Revolution.

1793–Eli Whitney applies for a cotton gin patent.

1819–The U.S. vessel SS Savannah arrives at Liverpool, England. It is the first steam-propelled vessel to cross the Atlantic, although most of the journey is made under sail.

1819–Composer, Jacques Offenbach, is born Jakob Offenbach in Cologne, Germany. He is best known for his nearly 100 operettas of the 1850s-1870s and his uncompleted opera The Tales of Hoffmann.

1837–Queen Victoria ascends to the British throne, after the death of King William IV at age 71. The first night of her reign is the first night she slept in a bed without her mother. The British government issues its first stamp (one-penny) with her likeness to commemorate the event.

1840–Samuel Morse receives the patent for the telegraph.

1862–Barbu Catargiu, the Prime Minister of Romania, is assassinated.

1863–West Virginia becomes the 35th state of the United States of America.

1867–President Andrew Johnson announces the purchase of Alaska.

1877–Alexander Graham Bell installs the world's first commercial telephone service in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

1887–Victoria Terminus, the busiest railway station in India, opens in Bombay.

1893–Lizzie Borden is acquitted of murdering her stepmother and father.

1894–Publisher, George Delacorte, is born George T. Delacorte, Jr. in New York, New York. He founded the Dell Publishing Company in 1921. The company was one of the largest publishers of books, magazines, and comics during its heyday. His most successful innovation was the puzzle magazine. In 1962, he donated money to establish the Delacorte Theater in Central Park in New York City. His other contributions to the park are the George Delacorte Musical Clock, a sculpture of Alice in Wonderland, and sculptures of The Tempest and Romeo and Juliet.

1895–The Kiel Canal, crossing the base of the Jutland peninsula and the busiest artificial waterway in the world, is officially opened.

1900–The Imperial Chinese Army begins a 55-day siege of the Legation Quarter in Beijing, China.

1900–Baron Eduard Toll, leader of the Russian Polar Expedition, departs Saint Petersburg, Russia, on the explorer ship Zarya, never to return.

1905–Playwright, Lillian (Florence) Hellman, is born in New Orleans, Louisiana. Her first successful play, The Children's Hour, was about a girl who destroyed the lives of two teachers by accusing them of having a lesbian affair. Her next successful play, The Little Foxes, is considered one of the greatest American theatrical pieces. She was known for her left-wing sympathies and political activism and was blacklisted by the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) at the height of the anti-communist campaigns of 1947-1952. She was romantically involved with fellow writer and political activist, Dashiell Hammett, who also was blacklisted for 30 years, until his death in 1961. Hellman’s other works include The Dark Angel, Dead End, The North Star, and Toys in the Attic. Her memoirs are recorded in three books: An Unfinished Woman, Pentimento, and Maybe.

1909–Actor, Errol Flynn, is born in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. Considered one of Hollywood's most notorious stars, he was the screen's most famous Robin Hood. He appeared in the films Captain Blood, The Charge of the Light Brigade, The Prince and the Pauper, The Adventures of Robin Hood, The Sea Hawk, They Died with Their Boots On, Gentleman Jim, Adventures of Don Juan, That Forsyte Woman, Montana, Against All Flags, The Sun Also Rises, and Too Much, Too Soon.

1911–The NAACP incorporates in New York.

1916–Jean-Jacques Bertrand, Premier of Quebec (1968-1970), is born in Sainte-Agathe-des-Monts, Quebec, Canada.

1921–Workers of Buckingham and Carnatic Mills in Chennai, India, begin a four-month strike.

1924–Guitarist, Chet Atkins, is born Chester Burton Atkins in Luttrell, Tennessee. He is the music figure most responsible for the "Nashville Sound" of the 1960s. His trademark picking style and musicianship brought him admirers within and outside the country scene, in America and around the world. His singles include Mr. Sandman and Yakety Axe.

1925–Actor, Audie (Leon) Murphy, is born in Kingston, Texas. He was one of the most decorated American combat soldiers of World War II, receiving every military combat award for valor available from the U.S. Army, as well as French and Belgian awards for heroism. After the war, Murphy enjoyed a 21-year acting career. He played himself in the 1955 autobiographical To Hell and Back, based on his 1949 memoirs of the same name. He appeared in the films The Kid from Texas, Sierra, The Red Badge of Courage, The Cimarron Kid, Destry, Walk the Proud Land, Night Passage, The Quiet American, The Unforgiven, Hell Bent for Leather, Bullet for a Badman, Arizona Raiders, and A Time for Dying.

1928–A farmer near Greensburg, Kansas, looked up into the heart of a tornado. He described its walls as rotating clouds lit with constant flashes of lightning, a strong gassy odor, and a screaming, hissing sound.

1928–Actor, Martin Landau, is born in Brooklyn, New York. He is best known for his role on the TV spy series Mission: Impossible. He appeared in the films Pork Chop Hill, North by Northwest, The Gazebo, Cleopatra, The Hallelujah Trail, The Greatest Story Ever Told, Nevada Smith, They Call Me Mister Tibbs!, Meteor, Tucker: A Man and His Dream, Crimes and Misdemeanors, Mistress, Sliver, Intersection, Ed Wood, EDtv, and The Majestic. He was married to actress, Barbara Bain.

1931–Actress, Olympia Dukakis, is born in Lowell, Massachusetts. She appeared in the films John and Mary, Made for Each Other, Sisters, Death Wish, The Idolmaker, Moonstruck, Working Girl, Steel Magnolias, Dad, I Love Trouble, Mr. Holland’s Opus, Mighty Aphrodite, Picture Perfect, and Cloudburst.

1933–Actor, Danny Aiello, is born Daniel Louis Aiello, Jr. in New York, New York. He appeared in the films Bang the Drum Slowly, The Godfather: Part II, Hide in Plain Sight, Fort Apache the Bronx, Once Upon a Time in America, Broadway Danny Rose, The Purple Rose of Cairo, The Pick-up Artist, Radio Days, Moonstruck, Do the Right rhing, Jacob’s Ladder, Once Around, 29th Street, Ruby, Mistress, The Pickle, and Ready to Wear.

1934–Character actor, Terrence (Horace) Evans, is born in Los Angeles, California. He was cast in numerous TV shows, including Hart to Hart, Little House on the Prairie, The Greatest American Hero, The Dukes of Hazzard, Hill Street Blues, The Golden Girls, and Quantum Leap. He appeared in the films Fletch, Pale Rider, Welcome Home, Roxy Carmichael, Terminator 2: Judgment Day, and What’s Love Got to Do with It?

1936–Billy Guy, of The Coasters, is born Frank Phillips, Jr. in Itasca, Texas. The group’s hits include Youngblood, Searchin’, Yakety Yak, Charlie Brown, Along Came Jones, and Poison Ivy.

1938–Producer and singer, Mickie Most, is born Michael Peter Hayes in Aldershot, Hampshire, England. He had a string of hit singles with The Animals, Herman's Hermits, The Nashville Teens, Donovan, Lulu, Suzi Quatro, Hot Chocolate, and The Jeff Beck Group, often issued on his own RAK Records label. In 1995, Most's fortune was estimated at £50 million and he appeared in The Sunday Times annual “Rich List” among the Top 500 in England. His house, on Totteridge Lane in London, was claimed to be the largest private home in the U.K., worth an estimated £4 million.

1940–During World War II, Italy begins an unsuccessful invasion of France.

1940–Actor, (Charles) John Mahoney, is born in Bispham, Blackpool, Lancashire, England. He is best known for the role of Martin Crane in the TV series Frasier. He appeared in the films Code of Silence, The Manhattan Project, Suspect, Tin Men, Moonstruck, Frantic, Betrayed, Eight Men Out, Say Anything..., The Russia House, Barton Fink, Article 99, In the Line of Fire, Striking Distance, Reality Bites, The Hudsucker Proxy, The American President, and Primal Fear.

1941–The U.S. Army Air Corps is deprecated to being the American training and logistics section of what is known until 1947 as the U.S. Army Air Forces.

1941–Film director, Stephen (Arthur) Frears, is born in Leicester, Leicestershire, England. His films include Gumshoe, My Beautiful Laundrette, Prick Up Your Ears, Dangerous Liaisons, The Grifters, Hero, Mary Reilly, High Fidelity, Dirty Pretty Things, Mrs. Henderson Presents, The Queen, and Philomena.

1942–Kazimierz Piechowski and three others, dressed as members of the SS-Totenkopfverbände, steal an SS staff car and escape from the Auschwitz concentration camp.

1942–Songwriter, singer, and musician, Brian (Douglas) Wilson, is born in Hawthorne, California. He and his brothers, Dennis and Carl Wilson, formed The Beach Boys with cousin, Mike Love, and friend, Al Jardine. They created the California sound now known as “surf music,” with such hits as Surfin' USA, I Get Around, and California Girls. Brian gave up touring in 1965, due to nervous exhaustion, but continued on as the group's writer-producer. He had a solo single in 1966, Caroline No, which also appeared on his masterwork album Pet Sounds. Into the 21st century, Brian Wilson has continued to tour around the world and produce new recordings for his multi-generational fan base. He is one of the most respected artists in pop music history. His daughters are pop singers, Carnie Wilson and Wendy Wilson.

1943–The Detroit Race Riot breaks out and continues for three days. Before Federal troops regained control, 34 people were killed, 433 people were injured, and $2 million worth of property was destoyed.

1944–The U.S. Congress charters the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

1944–The Nazis begin a mass extermination of Jews at Auschwitz.

1944–In World War II, the Battle of the Philippine Sea concludes with a U.S. Navy victory. The lopsided air battle is also known as the "Great Marianas Turkey Shoot."

1944–The Soviet Union demands an unconditional surrender from Finland during the beginning of partially successful Vyborg-Petrozavodsk Offensive. The Finnish government refuses.

1944–The experimental MW 18014 V-2 rocket reaches an altitude of 176km, becoming the first man-made object to reach outer space.

1944–Child actress, Cheryl (Lynn) Holdridge, is born in New Orleans, Louisiana. She cast in Walt Disney's The Mickey Mouse Club in the spring of 1956. She appeared on many TV shows, including Leave It to Beaver, Bachelor Father, My Three Sons, The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet, The Rifleman, The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis, Dennis the Menace, The Donna Reed Show, Hawaiian Eye, The Dick Van Dyke Show, Dr. Kildare, Wagon Train, and Bewitched. She was married to race car driver, Lance Reventlow.

1945–The U.S. Secretary of State approves the transfer of Wernher von Braun and his team of Nazi rocket scientists to America.

1945–Singer, (Morna) Anne Murray, is born in Springhill, Nova Scotia, Canada. Murray was the first Canadian female solo singer to reach #1 on the U.S. charts, and also the first to earn a Gold record for her signature song Snowbird. Her other hits include You Needed Me and Could I Have This Dance.

1946–Bob Vila, host of the PBS-TV series This Old House, is born Robert Joseph Vila in Miami, Florida.

1946–Concert pianist, André Watts, is born in Nuremberg, Germany.

1947–Actress, Candy Clark, is born Candace June Clark in Norman, Oklahoma. She appeared in the films Fat City, American Graffiti, The Man Who Fell to Earth, The Big Sleep, More American Graffiti, When You Comin’ Back, Red Ryder, Blue Thunder, Hambone and Hillie, Cat’s Eye, Popeye Doyle, At Close Range, and Radioland Murders. She was married to evangelist-actor, Marjoe Gortner.

1947–Mobster, Bugsy Siegel, is shot to death by an unknown assailant in Beverly Hills, California, at age 41. No one was charged with the murder and the crime remains officially unsolved.

1948–The Deutsche Mark is introduced in West Germany.

1948–The TV variety show, Toast Of The Town, makes its debut. It will later have its name changed to The Ed Sullivan Show.

1949–Singer, Lionel Richie, is born Lionel Brockman Richie, Jr. in Tuskegee, Alabama. In 1968, he was a member of the musical group, The Commodores. Richie made his solo debut in 1982, with the #1 hit Truly. His other hits include All Night Long, Hello, Stuck on You, Say You, Say Me, and Dancing on the Ceiling. He has sold more than 100 million records worldwide, making him one of the best selling music artists of all time.

1952–Actor, John (Stephen) Goodman, is born in St. Louis, Missouri. He is best known for the role of Dan Conner on the TV series Roseanne. He appeared in the films Eddie Macon’s Run, The Survivors, Revenge of the Nerds, Sweet Dreams, True Stories, The Big Easy, Raising Arizona, Punchline, Everybody’s All-American, Sea of Love, Always, Stella, Arachnophobia, Barton Fink, The Babe, Matinee, The Big Lebowski, O Brother, Where Art Thou?, Masked and Anonymous, The Artist, Argo, The Internship, and The Monuments Men.

1956–A Venezuelan Super-Constellation crashes in the Atlantic Ocean off Asbury Park, New Jersey, killing 74 people.

1959–A rare June hurricane strikes Canada's Gulf of St. Lawrence killing 35 people.

1960–The Mali Federation gains independence from France.

1960–Floyd Patterson knocks out Ingemar Johansson in Round 5 for the Heavyweight Boxing Championship.

1960–(Nigel) John Taylor, of Duran Duran, is born in Solihull, Warwickshire, England. Duran Duran were one of the most popular groups in the world during the 1980s due to their revolutionary music videos that played in heavy rotation in the early days of MTV. The band’s hits include Girls on Film, Hungry Like the Wolf, and Rio.

1963–The so-called “red telephone” is established between the Soviet Union and United States following the Cuban Missile Crisis. It serves as a direct link between the two nations. A non-dial "Red Phone" is on display in the Jimmy Carter Library and Museum. This telephone is actually a prop, erroneously representing the hotline between Washington and Moscow.

1965–Ira Louvin, of The Louvin Brothers, dies in an automobile accident in Williamsburg, Missouri, at age 41. The Louvin Brothers' songs were heavily influenced by their Baptist faith and warned against sin.

1966–Capitol Records re-releases The Beatles’ LP, Yesterday and Today, with a new and tacky looking album cover, showing The Beatles posing vacantly alongside a large trunk. The original version of the album had been recalled from distributors after their shocked reaction to the "butcher” cover. The butcher covers were destroyed and replaced with this rather bland sleeve. Capitol issues an apology for the ”ill-starred attempt at pop-art satire.” Some of the original covers were not destroyed, with the new covers being pasted over the old ones, so an undetermined number of Beatles fans bought albums with the original cover underneath the “sanitized” photo. These LPs are now worth a fortune as rare Beatles memorabilia. The cost of replacing the covers caused Capitol Records to lose money on the album.

1966–The New York Times reports George Harrison and Brian Jones (of The Rolling Stones) have taken up the sitar.

1967–Actress, Nicole (Mary) Kidman, is born in Honolulu, Hawaii. She appeared in the films Dead Calm, Days of Thunder, Far and Away, Malice, Batman Forever, To Die For, The Portrait of a Lady, Eyes Wide Shut, Moulin Rouge!, The Hours, The Human Stain, Cold Mountain, The Stepford Wives, Birth, and Paddington. She was married to actor, Tom Cruise, and country singer, Keith Urban.

1969–Georges Pompidou is sworn in as President of France.

1971–Actor, Josh Lucas, is born Joshua Lucas Easy Dent Maurer in Little Rock, Arkansas. He appeared in the films Father Hood, Alive, True Blue, American Psycho, The Weight of Water, A Beautiful Mind, Sweet Home Alabama, Secondhand Lions, Wonderland, An Unfinished Life, Glory Road, J. Edgar, and Big Sur.

1972–In the Watergate scandal, an 18.5 minute gap is discovered on a tape made in the Oval Office by the Nixon administration. Secretary, Rosemary Woods, claims to have made the erasure during her transcription of the tapes.

1972–Howard Johnson, restaurant and hotel founder, dies in Milton, Massachusetts, at age 75. He built Howard Johnson Motor Lodges and Restaurants all across America.

1973–In the Ezeiza massacre in Buenos Aires, Argentina, snipers fire upon left-wing Peronists killing at least 13 people and injuring more than 300 others.

1975–The film, Jaws, is released in America, starting the trend of films known as "summer blockbusters."

1978–A 6.6 earthquake northeast of Thessaloniki, Greece, kills 50 people and injures many others.

1979–ABC News correspondent, Bill Stewart, is shot dead by a Nicaraguan soldier under the regime of Anastasio Somoza Debayle. The murder is caught on tape and sparks international outrage.

1980–Inspired by listening to Bob Marley’s Burnin’ album, while relaxing in Bermuda, John Lennon composes his song Borrowed Time. Lennon loved reggae music and tried to play it whenever he could, but he couldn't find musicians to work with who could successfully create the sound he wanted.

1982–The Argentine Corbeta Uruguay base on Southern Thule surrenders to Royal Marine commandos in the final action of the Falklands War.

1984–Actress, Estelle Winwood, dies in her sleep in Woodland Hills, California, at age 101. She appeared in the films The House of Trent, The Glass Slipper, The Swan, Darby O’Gill and the Little People, Alive and Kicking, The Misfits, The Magic Sword, The Notorious Landlady, Dead Ringer, Camelot, The Producers, and Murder by Death.

1990–The asteroid Eureka is discovered.

1990–A 7.6 earthquake in Iran kills 40,000 to 50,000 people.

1991–The German Parliament decides to move the capital from Bonn back to Berlin.

1993–The 47th NBA Championship: The Chicago Bulls beat the Phoenix Suns, 4 games to 2.

1994–O.J. Simpson is arraigned on the murder of Nicole Simpson and Ronald Goldman.

1994–The Imam Reza shrine bomb explosion in Iran kills at least 25 people and injures 70 to 300 others.

1994–Microchip designer, Jay Miner, dies due to complications from kidney failure in Mountain View, California, at age 62. He is known primarily for developing multimedia chips for the Atari 2600 and Atari 8-bit family and as the "father of the Amiga."

1997–At the 22nd Silver Clef Awards luncheon in London, England, John Lennon is honored posthumously for his contribution to world peace and for his outstanding contributions to British music. Yoko Ono accepts the award on Lennon's behalf, saying that John believed passionately in the healing powers of music. A statue of Lennon, which had been specially commissioned, is auctioned at the luncheon, and it is purchased by The Beatles Museum in Liverpool.

1999–News of the World prints a story confirming a fact that Beatles aficionados have known for a very long time. Under a headline which reads “1,000 Pound Beatles Autographs Were Forged,” the report reveals: “Beatles fans who have splashed out thousands of pounds for their heroes’ autographs may have bought fakes. A report states that many Fab Four programmes and souvenirs were signed by fan club secretaries.” The truth is, many Beatles autographs that date back to their American and World tour years were signed by Neil Aspinall and Mal Evans, who had become expert forgers of the Fab Four's signatures.

2001–In an attempt to save her young children from satan, Andrea Yates drowns all five of them in a bathtub in Houston, Texas.

2003–The Wikimedia Foundation is founded in St. Petersburg, Florida.

2006–The BBC cancels its weekly pop music show, Top of the Pops, after 42 years on the air.

2006–The 60th NBA Championship: The Miami Heat beat the Dallas Mavericks, 4 games to 2.

2007–Champion rodeo cowboy, Jim Shoulders, dies in Henryetta, Oklahoma, at age 79. He was an American professional rodeo cowboy and rancher. He is commemorated at the Pro Rodeo Hall of Fame and at the time of his death, was the most successful contestant in the Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association (PRCA)

2008–Surrey University, in England, awards Led Zeppelin's Jimmy Page an honorary Doctorate in Music.

2013–The 67th NBA Championship: The Miami Heat beat the San Antonio Spurs, 4 games to 3.

2016–According to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the number of people displaced by conflicts in the world is at the highest level ever recorded, with an estimated 65.3 million people either being refugees, internally displaced or asylum seekers.

2017–Following the death of 22-year-old U.S. student, Otto Warmbier, the touring firm, Young Pioneer Tours, who arranged Otto's visit to North Korea, say they will no longer be taking U.S. citizens to North Korea as the "risk is too high.” Otto’s family has accused the Government of North Korea of torturing him.

2017–Mattel introduces 15 new Ken dolls that come in different body shapes and sizes, skin colors, and various hairstyles and clothing options. The makeover is part of the toy company’s plans to make its dolls more diverse so that they will appeal to today’s kids. Mattel’s Barbie dolls went through a similar transition in 2016.

2017–Rapper, Prodigy, dies from complications of sickle-cell anaemia in Las Vegas, Nevada, at age 42. His grandfather, Budd Johnson, and his great-uncle, Keg Johnson, are known for their contributions to the Bebop era of jazz. He was the great-great-grandson of the founder of Morehouse College.

2018–The International Space Station (ISS) successfully deploys the British-led RemoveDEBRIS satellite, which is designed to test the removal of space debris in low Earth orbit.

2018–The fossil of a strange, sponge-like animal that lived half a billion years ago is discovered in China. The creature belongs to an obscure and mysterious group of animals known as the chancelloriids.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Roman Emperor, Louis the Pious; the Great Seal of the United States; Queen Victoria; Victoria Terminus; Errol Flynn; Audie Murphy; Olympia Dukakis; Mickie Most; Brian Wilson; Cheryl Holdridge; Candy Clark; John Goodman; the "Red Phone" hotline between the USA and Russia during the Cold War; Nicole Kidman; a vintage ad for Howard Johnson Motor Lodges and Restaurants; Estelle Winwood; Yoko Ono at the 22nd Silver Clef Awards luncheon in London, England; and the Top of the Pops logo.

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