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1976–After years of legal and political battles, John Lennon finally receives his Green Card: number A17-597-321. Judge Ira Fieldsteel grants him residential status in the U.S. and the right to apply for full citizenship in 1981. John had amassed a group of celebrity witnesses to speak in his favor, including Norman Mailer, Gloria Swanson, and Geraldo Rivera. A proud, short-haired, and formally dressed Lennon poses for photographers. He is amused to discover that his “green card” is actually blue. John also affirms to the press that he will record again only when his son, Sean, is five years old. From this point on, John ceases his regular communication with the music press.

678–Pope Saint Agatho begins his reign.

1040–Ladislaus I of Hungary is born in the Kingdom of Poland.

1350–Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos is born in Constantinople, Byzantine Empire.

1358–The Republic of Ragusa is founded.

1368–The Republic of Dubrovnik is founded. It was a maritime republic centered on the city of Dubrovnik, in Dalmatia (present-day southern-most Croatia), that existed from 1358 to 1808. It reached its commercial peak in the 15th and the 16th centuries, under the protection of the Ottoman Empire, before being conquered by Napoleon's French Empire in 1808.

1458–Alfonso V of Aragon dies in Castel dell'Ovo, Naples, Kingdom of Naples, at age 61.

1462–Louis XII, King of France (1498-1515), is born at Château de Blois in Blois, France.

1497–Cornish rebels, Michael An Gof and Thomas Flamank, are executed at Tyburn, London, England.

1550–Charles IX, King of France (1560-1574), is born Charles Maximilian in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France.

1556–The 13 Stratford Martyrs are burned at the stake for their Protestant beliefs at Stratford-le-Bow, near London, England, during the Marian persecutions. The executions were said to have been attended by a crowd of 20,000.

1743–In the Battle of Dettingen, George II becomes the last reigning British monarch to participate in a battle.

1759–General James Wolfe begins the siege of Quebec.

1760–Cherokee warriors defeat British forces at the Battle of Echoee near present-day Otto, North Carolina, during the Anglo-Cherokee War.

1806–British forces take Buenos Aires during the first British invasions of the Río de la Plata.

1829–James Smithson dies in Genoa, Italy, at age 63. His will establishes The Smithsonian Institute. It stated: "I then bequeath the whole of my property to the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men."

1839–Ranjit Singh dies in Lahore, Punjab, Sikh Empire (present-day Pakistan), at age 58. He was the founder of the Sikh Empire, which came to power on the Indian subcontinent in the early half of the 19th century. The Empire, based in the Punjab region, existed from 1799 to 1849.

1844–Hyrum Smith and Joseph Smith, Jr., leaders of the Mormon Church, are shot by a mob in Carthage, Illinois.

1864–Confederate forces defeat Union forces during the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain during the Atlanta Campaign of the American Civil War.

1871–The yen becomes the new form of currency in Japan.

1880–Author and lecturer, Helen (Adams) Keller, is born in Tuscumbia, Alabama. She was the first deaf and blind person to earn a Bachelor of Arts degree. The story of how her teacher, Anne Sullivan, broke through the isolation imposed by a near complete lack of language, allowing the girl to blossom as she learned to communicate, has become widely known through the dramatic depictions of the play and film The Miracle Worker. A member of the Socialist Party of America and the Industrial Workers of the World, she campaigned for women's suffrage, labor rights, socialism, and other similar causes.

1885–Inventors, Bell and Tainter, apply for a patent for their new gramophone.

1893–There is a crash of the New York Stock Exchange.

1895–The inaugural run of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad's Royal Blue from Washington, D.C. to New York City, is the first U.S. passenger train to use electric locomotives.

1898–The first solo circumnavigation of the globe is completed by Joshua Slocum from Briar Island, Nova Scotia.

1899–23rd Wimbledon Mens Tennis: Reginald Doherty beats Arthur Gore (1-6, 4-6, 6-3, 6-3, 6-3).

1899–16th Wimbledon Womens Tennis: Blanche Hillyard beats C. Sterry (6-2, 6-3).

1899–Businessman, Juan (Terry) Trippe, is born in Sea Bright, New Jersey. He founded Pan American World Airways.

1905–During the Russo-Japanese War, sailors start a mutiny aboard the Russian battleship Potemkin.

1906–Author, Catherine Cookson, is born Catherine Ann McMullen in South Shields, County Durham, England. She became the United Kingdom's most widely read novelist, with sales topping 100 million, while retaining a relatively low profile in the world of celebrity writers.

1907–Actor, John McIntire, is born in Spokane, Washington. The craggy-faced film actor grew up around ranchers and cowboys in Montana, an experience that would later inspire his performances in dozens of film and television westerns. He appeared in the films Call Northside 777, The Asphalt Jungle, Winchester ‘73, Westward the Women, The Tin Star, Sing, Boy, Sing, Who Was That Lady?, Psycho, Elmer Gantry, Flaming Star, Two Rode Together, Rooster Cogburn, and Honkytonk Man.

1907–Philosopher and academic, Elizabeth Cabot Agassiz, dies of a cerebral hemorrhage in Arlington, Massachusetts, at age 84. She was co-founder and the first President of Radcliffe College.

1913–Musician, Nathan Abshire, is born in Gueydan, Louisiana. He was a Cajun accordion player who, along with Iry LeJeune, was responsible for the renaissance of the accordion in Cajun music in the 1940s.

1927–Prime Minister of Japan, Tanaka Giichi, leads a conference to discuss Japan's plans for China.

1927–Bob Keeshan, host of the children’s show, Captain Kangaroo, is born in Lynbrook, New York. Baby boomers loved the Captain and his crew: Dancing Bear, Bunny Rabbit, Grandfather Clock, Mister Moose, and Mister Green Jeans. He described his character as based on "the warm relationship between grandparents and children." Keeshan wore a specially designed suit with deep “kangaroo” pockets from which he would pull out various items during the show. The New York Times commented: "Captain Kangaroo, a round-faced, pleasant, mustachioed man possessed of an unshakable calm... was one of the most enduring characters television ever produced." Prior to Captain Kangaroo, Keeshan played “Clarabell the Clown” on The Howdy Doody Show.

1929–The first demonstration of color TV takes place in New York City.

1930–Billionaire businessman, H. Ross Perot, is born Henry Ross Perot in Texarkana, Texas. He founded Electronic Data Systems (EDS) in 1962, sold the company to General Motors in 1984, and founded Perot Systems in 1988. Perot Systems was bought by Dell for $3.9 billion in 2009. He best known for being an Independent presidential candidate in 1992 and the Reform Party presidential candidate in 1996.

1933–Actor, Gary (Evan) Crosby, is born in Los Angeles, California. He was seen often in TV shows in 1950s and 1960s. He appeared in the films Star Spangled Rhythm, Duffy’s Tavern, Marci Gras, Holiday for Lovers, A Private’s Affair, The Right Approach, Battle at Bloody Beach, Two Tickets to Paris, Operation Bikini, Girl Happy, Which Way to the Front?, and The Night Stalker. He is the son of actor-singer, Bing Crosby

1934–The Federal Savings & Loan Association is created.

1941–Romanian authorities launch one of the most violent pogroms in Jewish history in the city of Iasi, resulting in the murder of at least 13,266 Jews.

1941–German troops capture the city of Bialystok during Operation Barbarossa.

1942–The FBI captures eight Nazi saboteurs from a sub off Long Island, New York.

1942–Bruce (Arthur) Johnston, of The Beach Boys, is born Benjamin Baldwin in Peoria, Illinois. He joined The Beach Boys for live performances in 1965, but then became a contributing member on later albums. Johnston is also known for his early 1960s collaborations with Terry Melcher as Bruce & Terry, and with the surf band The Rip Chords. He is the composer of the 1975 Barry Manilow hit I Write the Songs.

1943–Rock promoter, Tony Calder, is born in Surbiton, Surrey, London, England. He was a rock and roll record manager, impresario, talent-spotter, and public relations agent. He was Andrew Loog Oldham's business partner from 1963 to December 1969. In 1962, Calder was hired by Brian Epstein to promote The Beatles single, Love Me Do, which he did successfully by sending free copies to the top 50 Mecca Ballrooms and the Top Rank ballrooms, in order to persuade the local independent record shops to order the record.

1943–Native American potter, Vera Chino, is born on the Acoma Pueblo in New Mexico. In 1979, she participated in the “One Space: Three Visions” exhibition at the Albuquerque Museum in Albuquerque, New Mexico. A collection of her works can be seen at the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

1945–Joey Covington, drummer for Jefferson Airplane and Hot Tuna, is born Joseph Edward Michno in Johnstown, Pennsylvania.

1945–Fashion designer, Norma Kamali, is born in New York, New York. She is best known for the "sleeping bag" coat, garments made from silk parachutes, and versatile multi-use pieces. She designed the red one-piece bathing suit worn by Farrah Fawcett in the iconic 1976 Charlie's Angels poster. She is also credited with popularizing the shoulder pad in womenswear in the 1980s.

1946–In the Canadian Citizenship Act, the Parliament of Canada establishes the definition of Canadian citizenship.

1949–Fashion designer, Vera (Ellen) Wang, is born in New York, New York. Wang was a senior fashion editor at Vogue magazine before joining Ralph Lauren as a design director. She would ultimately become widely known for her line of haute couture wedding gowns.

1950–The United States decides to send troops to fight in the Korean War.

1951–Actress, Julia Duffy, is born Julia Margaret Hinds in Minneapolis, Minnesota. she best known for he role of Stephanie Vanderkellen on the TV sitcom Newhart. She appeared in the films Battle Beyond the Stars, Dumb and Dumberer: When Harry Met Lloyd, and Intolerable Cruelty. She is married to actor, Jerry Lacy.

1951–Academic and politician, Mary McAleese, is born Mary Patricia Leneghan in Belfast, Northern Ireland. She was the eighth President of Ireland.

1952–Guatemala passes Decree 900, ordering the redistribution of uncultivated land.

1953–Joseph Laniel becomes the Prime Minister of France.

1954–The Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant, the Soviet Union's first nuclear power station, opens in Obninsk, near Moscow, Russia.

1954–The FIFA World Cup quarterfinal match between Hungary and Brazil, highly anticipated to be exciting, instead turns violent, with three players ejected and further fighting continuing after the game.

1955–The first automobile seat belt legislation is enacted in the U.S.

1955–Actress, Isabelle (Yasmina) Adjani, is born in Paris, France. She appeared in the films The Story of Adele H., The Tenant, Barocco, The Driver, The Bronte Sisters, Possession, Quarter, One Deadly Summer, Subway, Ishtar, Camille Claudel, and Diabolique.

1956–Occult writer, Scott (Douglas) Cunningham, is born in Royal Oak, Michigan. His books included Magical Herbalism: The Secret Craft of the Wise, Earth Power: Techniques of Natural Magic, and Wicca: A Guide for the Solitary Practitioner.

1957–Hurricane Audrey makes landfall near the Texas-Louisiana border, killing over 400 people, mainly in and around Cameron, Louisiana.

1959–Country singer, Lorrie Morgan, is born Loretta Lynn Morgan in Nashville, Tennessee. She has charted more than 25 singles on the Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks charts, with three #1 hits: Five Minutes, What Part of No and I Didn't Know My Own Strength.

1960–Harry Pollitt, General Secretary of the Communist Party of Great Britain, dies of a cerebral haemorrhage while on the SS Orion, at age 69.

1962–Ross Perot founds his company Electronic Data Systems.

1964–Broadway musical actress, Ethel Merman, marries actor, Ernest Borgnine, in Beverly Hills, California.

1965–Where the Action Is debuts on ABC-TV. This marks the “beginning of the end” of The British Invasion that had begun with The Beatles in 1964.

1966–On a flight to Japan for five live concerts in Tokyo, The Beatles are forced to make an unscheduled stop in Anchorage, Alaska, because of a typhoon warning.

1966–The first sci-fi soap opera, Dark Shadows, debuts on ABC-TV.

1966–Director, producer, and screenwriter, J.J. Abrams, is born in New York, New York. His films include Regarding Henry, Forever Young, Six Degrees of Separation, Armageddon, Mission: Impossible III, and Star Trek. He is the son of television producer, Gerald W. Abrams, and executive producer, Carol Ann Abrams.

1967–The world's first ATM is installed in Enfield, London, England.

1968–Elvis Presley begins filming his acclaimed comeback TV special, Elvis, at the NBC-TV studios in Burbank, California.

1969–Police raid the Stonewall Gay Bar in Greenwich Village, New York. About 400 to 1,000 patrons riot against the police for three solid days.

1971–After only three years in business, rock promoter, Bill Graham, closes the Fillmore East in New York City.

1973–Former White House counsel, John W. Dean, tells the Senate Watergate Committee about an “enemies list” that was kept by the Nixon White House.

1973–President Richard Nixon vetoes a Senate ban on bombing Cambodia.

1973–The President of Uruguay, Juan María Bordaberry, dissolves Parliament and establishes a dictatorship.

1973–Earl Browder, leader of the U.S. Communist Party (1930-1945), dies in Princeton, New Jersey, at age 82.

1974–President Richard Nixon visits the Soviet Union.

1974–Singer-actor, Christian Kane, is born in Dallas, Texas. He is best known for his roles on the TV shows Angel, Leverage, and Into the West. He appeared in the films EDtv, Crossfire Trail, Life or Something Like It, Secondhand Lions, and Friday Night Lights.

1975–Actor, Tobey Maguire, is born Tobias Vincent Maguire in Santa Monica, California. He appeared in the films This Boy’s Life, S.F.W., Joyride, The Ice Storm, Deconstructing Harry, Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, Pleasantville, Ride with the Devil, The Cider House Rules, Wonder Boys, Spider-Man, Seabiscuit, and Brothers.

1976–Air France Flight 139 is hijacked en route to Paris, France, by the PLO and redirected to Entebbe, Uganda.

1976–After years of legal and political battles, John Lennon finally receives his Green Card: number A17-597-321. Judge Ira Fieldsteel grants him residential status in the U.S. and the right to apply for full citizenship in 1981. John had amassed a group of celebrity witnesses to speak in his favor, including Norman Mailer, Gloria Swanson, and Geraldo Rivera. A proud, short-haired, and formally dressed Lennon poses for photographers. He is amused to discover that his “green card” is actually blue. John also affirms to the press that he will record again only when his son, Sean, is five years old. From this point on, John ceases his regular communication with the music press.

1977–France grants independence to Djibouti.

1979–Muhammad Ali announces his retirement from boxing.

1980–Italian Aerolinee Itavia Flight 870 mysteriously explodes in mid-air, while en route from Bologna to Palermo, killing all 81 people on board.

1980–President Jimmy Carter signs legislation reviving draft registration.

1981–The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China issues its "Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party Since the Founding of the People's Republic of China," laying the blame for the Cultural Revolution on Mao Zedong.

1981–A chart topper: All Those Years Ago by George Harrison.

1982–The Space Shuttle Columbia is launched from the Kennedy Space Center on its final research and development flight mission, STS-4.

1982–John Lennon’s friend, Harry Nilsson, writes and records, With a Bullet, a song designed to raise funds for the National Coalition To Ban Handguns. Nilsson had been heavily involved in the campaign since Lennon’s death.

1985–The legendary highway, Route 66, which originally stretched from Chicago, Illinois, to Santa Monica, California, passes into history as officials decertify the road.

1988–The Gare de Lyon rail accident in Paris, France, kills 56 people and injures 55 others.

1989–The Who perform their rock opera, Tommy, at Radio City Music Hall to benefit the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and a children's charity.

1991–After declaring independence two days before, Slovenia is invaded by Yugoslav troops, tanks, and aircraft, starting the Ten-Day War.

1994–Members of the Aum Shinrikyo cult release sarin gas in Matsumoto, Japan, killing seven people and injuring 660 others.

1996–Film producer, Cubby Broccoli, dies of heart failure in Beverly Hills, California, at age 87. His films include Jazz Boat, Dr. No, Call Me Bwana, From Russia with Love, Goldfinger, Thunderball, You Only Life Twice, Chitty Chitty Bang Bang, On Her Majesty’s Secret Service, Diaonds Are Forever, Live and Let Die, The Man with the Golden Gun, The Spy Who Loved Me, Moonraker, For Your Eyes Only, and Octopussy.

1999–Paul McCartney's first classical work, the semi-autobiographical, Liverpool Oratorio, is performed by the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra in Liverpool Cathedral.

1999–Greek dictator, George Papadopoulos, dies of cancer in Athens, Greece, at age 80. He was the head of the military coup d'état that took place in Greece on April 21, 1967 and leader of the junta that ruled the country from 1967 to 1974.

2000–Pierre Pflimlin, Prime Minister of France, dies in Strasbourg, France, at age 93.

2001–Actor, Jack Lemmon, dies of colon cancer and metastatic cancer of the bladder in Los Angeles, California, at age 76. His gravestone simply reads "JACK LEMMON in": a reference to how he was billed in film credits. He appeared in the films Mister Roberts, Some Like It Hot, The Apartment, Days of Wine and Roses, Irma la Douce, Under the Yum Yum Tree, The Odd Couple, The Out-of-Towners, Save the Tiger, The China Syndrome, Glengarry Glen Ross, and Grumpy Old Men.

2002–John Entwistle, bass player for The Who, dies of a heart attack in Las Vegas, Nevada, at age 57.

2003–The United States “National Do Not Call Registry,” formed to combat unwanted telemarketing calls and administered by the Federal Trade Commission, enrolls almost three-quarters of a million phone numbers on its first day.

2003–Director and screenwriter, David Newman, dies from a stroke in New York, New York, at age 66. His writing credits include Bonnie and Clyde, What’s Up, Doc?, Oh! Calcutta!, Bad Company, Superman (I, II, and III), and Still of the Night.

2004–Military General George Patton IV, dies in South Hamilton, Massachusetts, at age 80. He was the son of World War II General George S. Patton, Jr. He served in the Korean War and the Vietnam War.

2005–Author and historian, Shelby Foote, dies of a heart attack in Memphis, Tennessee, at age 88. He wrote The Civil War: A Narrative, a massive, three-volume history of the war. Foote was relatively unknown to the general public for most of his life, until his appearance in Ken Burns's 1990 PBS documentary, The Civil War, where he introduced a generation of Americans to a war that he believed was "central to all our lives."

2005–Businessman, John T. Walton, dies when his CGS Hawk Arrow homebuilt aircraft crashes in Jackson, Wyoming, at age 58. He was the son of Walmart founder, Sam Walton. Shortly before his death, Forbes magazine estimated Walton's net worth to be $18.2 billion, tied with his brother, Jim, as the fourth richest person in the United States, and 11th richest person in the world.

2007–Tony Blair resigns as British Prime Minister, a position he had held since 1997.

2008–In a highly scrutizined election, Robert Mugabe is re-elected President of Zimbabwe in a landslide, after his opponent, Morgan Tsvangirai, withdraws, citing violence against his party's supporters.

2008–Bill Gates steps down as Chairman of Microsoft Corporation to work full time for the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

2009–Actress, Gale Storm, dies in Danville, California, at age 87. She is best known for her starring role on the 1950s TV series My Little Margie. She appeared in the films Tom Brown’s School Days, Let’s Go Collegiate, Red River Valley, Revenge of the Zombies, Campus Rhythm, G.I. Honeymoon, It Happened on Fifth Avenue, Abandoned, Curtain Call at Cactus Creek, The Underworld Story, and Between Midnight and Dawn.

2012–Actor, Don Grady, dies of cancer in Thousand Oaks, California, at age 68. He is best known for the role of Robbie Douglas on the TV sitcom My Three Sons. He also appeared in the TV shows The Ann Sothern Show, Zane Grey Theater, Death Valley Days, The Rifleman, Wagon Train, Have Gun Will Travel, The Lucy Show, and Love American Style. He appeared in the films Cash McCall, Ma Barker’s Killer Brood, and The Crowded Sky.

2013–NASA launches the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, a space probe to observe the Sun.

2014–At least 14 people are killed when a Gas Authority of India Limited pipeline explodes in the East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, India.

2014–Singer, Bobby Womack, dies of cancer in Tarzana, California, at age 70. He is best known for the hits Lookin' For a Love, That's the Way I Feel About Cha, and Woman's Gotta Have It.

2015–Flammable starch-based powder explodes at Formosa Fun Coast, a recreational water park in New Taipei, Taiwan. By the following day the injury list from the explosion is at least 498 people, with 184 in intensive care.

2015–Musician, Chris Squire, of the progressive rock group Yes, dies of acute erythroid leukemia in Phoenix, Arizona, at age 67. He was the only member to appear on each of the band’s 21 studio albums, released from 1969 to 2014.

2016–The impact of Brexit (Britain voting to leave the European Union) include: The value of the British pound initially falls by more than 2% as Asian markets open to a decline; the Dow Jones drops by more than 300 points in early trading; and Standard & Poor's downgrades the U.K. credit rating from AAA to AA with a negative outlook.

2016–India formally joins the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR).

2016–Former Moldovan Prime Minister, Vlad Filat, is sentenced to prison for nine years after being found guilty of corruption and abuse of power.

2016–At least two people are killed and 72 others are injured following a grenade attack on a concert at the Mahamasina Municipal Stadium in Antananarivo, Madagascar.

2016–Futurist, Alvin Toffler, dies in his sleep in his home in Los Angeles, California, at age 87. He was known for his works discussing modern technologies, including the digital revolution and the communication revolution, with emphasis on their effects on cultures worldwide. In 1970, his first major book about the future, Future Shock, became a worldwide best-seller and has sold over six million copies.

2017–The European Commission imposes a record $2.7 billion antitrust fine on search engine giant Google. It is related to manipulation of its search engine results.

2017–Facebook officially hits two billion monthly users, solidifying the company’s position as the largest, most influential social network in the world.

2017–A major ransomware cyberattack strikes companies across the globe.

2017–Author, Michael Bond, dies in London, England, at age 91. He wrote the Paddington Bear series of children’s books. More than 35 million Paddington books have sold around the world and the characters have also been featured in film and on television. His first book was published in 1958, and his last in 2017, a span of 59 years.

2018–U.S. Supreme Court Justice, Anthony Kennedy, announces that he will retire effective July 31, 2018.

2018–Enceladus, a moon of Saturn, is reported to host complex carbon-based molecules. Considered a precursor to life, the compounds have previously only been known to exist on Earth and some meteorites.

2018–In England, Greater Manchester Police declares a major incident as a wildfire continues to spread on Saddleworth Moor, forcing nearby homes to be evacuated. The fire is described as the "biggest in living memory" in the United Kingdom. Army assistance is granted to tackle the blaze.

2018–Sierra Negra erupts on the island of Isabela, the largest island of the Galapagos archipelago.

2018–Writer, Harlan Ellison, dies unexpectedly in his sleep at his home in Los Angeles, California, at age 84. His published works include over 1,700 short stories, novellas, screenplays, comic book scripts, teleplays, essays, a wide range of criticism covering literature, film, television, and print media. Some of his best-known work includes the Star Trek episode "The City on the Edge of Forever," and the books A Boy and His Dog and I Have No Mouth and I Must Scream.

2018–Joe Jackson, patriarch of the musical Jackson family, dies of pancreatic cancer in Las Vegas, Nevada, at age 89. His pop icon children include all members of the Jackson 5 and solo artists, Michael Jackson and Janet Jackson.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Pope Saint Agatho; James Smithson; an early gramophone; James McIntire; H. Ross Parot; Norma Kamali; the Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant near Moscow, Russia; Harry Pollitt; Jonathan Frid of Dark Shadows; the Fillmore East in New York City; Tobey Maguire; All Those Years Ago by George Harrison; Cubby Broccoli; Jack Lemmon; Shelby Foote; a vintage set of Gale Storm paper dolls; and Chris Squire.

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