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1940–Artist, Stuart Sutcliffe, is born in Edinburgh, Scotland. He became a good friend of John Lennon's upon meeting him at art college, and Lennon soon persuaded Stu to become of member of his band. Although he went along on the group’s first trip to Hamburg, Germany, Stu didn’t fair well as bass player with The Beatles, and he left the group in 1961, opting to remain in Germany with his girlfriend Astrid Kirchherr. After 50 years, Sutcliffe’s work is still shown in art galleries around the world. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame opened an exhibit on the life and work of Stuart Sutcliffe in 2001.



BC 47–Pharaoh Ptolemy XV of Egypt is born Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar. Between the death of Cleopatra, on August 12, 30 BC, up to his own death on August 23, 30 BC, he was nominally the sole pharaoh. He was the eldest son of Cleopatra VII, and possibly the only son of Julius Caesar, after whom he was named.

79–Vespasian, Roman Emperor, dies at the Aquae Cutiliae mineral spring near Rieti, Italy, at age 69.

229–Sun Quan proclaims himself Emperor of Eastern Wu.

930–The world's oldest parliament, the Icelandic Parliament, the Albingi, is established.

1180–Th first Battle of Uji causes the Genpei War in Japan.

1280–The Battle of Moclín takes place in the context of the Spanish Reconquista, pitting the forces of the Kingdom of Castile against the Emirate of Granada.

1298–Duke Albrecht von Habsburg is crowned King of Germany.

1305–A peace treaty between the Flemish and the French is signed at Athis-sur-Orge.

1314–In the First War of Scottish Independence, the Battle of Bannockburn (south of Stirling) begins.

1456–Margaret of Denmark, Queen of Scotland, is born in Denmark. She was the wife of King James III.

1532–Henry VIII of England and Francis I of France sign a secret treaty against Emperor Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.

1565–Dragut, commander of the Ottoman navy, dies during the Great Siege of Malta.

1611–The mutinous crew of Henry Hudson's fourth voyage sets Henry, his son, and seven loyal crew members adrift in an open boat in what is now Hudson Bay. They are never heard from again.

1661–A marriage contract is made between Charles II of England and Catherine of Braganza.

1683–William Penn signs a friendship treaty with the Lenni Lenape Indians in Pennsylvania.

1713–The French residents of Acadia are given one year to declare allegiance to Britain or leave Nova Scotia, Canada.

1763–Joséphine de Beauharnais, wife of Napoleon I, is born Marie Josèphe Rose Tascher de La Pagerie in Les Trois-Îlets, Martinique, France.

1776–The final draft of the Declaration of Independence is submitted to the Continental Congress.

1794–Empress Catherine II of Russia grants Jews permission to settle in Kiev.

1810–John Jacob Astor founds the Pacific Fur Company.

1812–Great Britain revokes the restrictions on American commerce, thus eliminating one of the chief reasons for going to war.

1846–Adolphe Sax is granted a patent for the saxophone, a hybrid of brass and reed instruments.

1848–The June Days Uprising begins in Paris, France.

1859–Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia dies in Weimar, Germany, at age 73.

1860–The U.S. Congress establishes the Government Printing Office.

1868–Christopher Latham Sholes receives a patent for an invention he calls a “Type-Writer.”

1887–The Rocky Mountains Park Act becomes law in Canada, with the nation's first national park, Banff National Park.

1888–Frederick Douglass is the first African-American nominated for U.S. President.

1894–The International Olympic Committee is founded at the Sorbonne, Paris, France.

1894–Edward VIII, King of Great Britain, Northern Ireland, and Emperor of India (1936), is born at White Lodge, Richmond, Surrey, England. Edward was the eldest son of King George V and Queen Mary. He became Prince of Wales on his 16th birthday, nine weeks after his father succeeded as King. As a young man, he served in the British Armed Forces during World War I.

1894–Entomologist and sexologist, Alfred (Charles) Kinsey, is born in Hoboken, New Jersey. In 1947, he founded the Institute for Sex Research at Indiana University, now known as the Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction. He is best known for writing Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female.

1895–American architect, James Renwick, Jr., dies in New York, New York, at age 76. He designed St. Patrick's Cathedral.

1909–Li Xiannian, Chinese President (1983-1988), is born in Hong’an Hubei, Qing China. He rose to prominence in the Communist Party of China in 1976, when Hua Guofeng succeeded Mao Zedong as Chairman of the Communist Party of China. At the height of his career in the 1980s, Li was considered one of the most influential architects of China's economic policy after the Cultural Revolution, and is considered one of the Eight Elders of Communist Party of China.

1910–Gordon B. Hinckley, 15th President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, is born in Salt Lake City, Utah.

1912–Alan (Mathison) Turing, pioneer in computer theory, is born in Maida Vale, London, England. He was highly influential in the development of computer science, providing a formalisation of the concepts of "algorithm" and "computation" with the Turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general purpose computer. He is widely considered to be the father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence.

1913–In the Second Balkan War, the Greeks defeat the Bulgarians in the Battle of Doiran.

1914–During the Mexican Revolution, Pancho Villa takes Zacatecas from Victoriano Huerta.

1917–In a game against the Washington Senators, Boston Red Sox pitcher, Ernie Shore, retires 26 batters in a row after replacing Babe Ruth, who had been ejected for punching the Umpire.

1925–Actor, Larry Blyden, is born Ivan Lawrence Blieden in Houston, Texas. He was seen in many TV shows, including Playhouse 90, The United States Steel Hour, The Twilight Zone, Thriller, The Loretta Young Show, Route 66, Dr. Kildare, The Alfred Hitchcock Hour, The F.B.I., and The Mod Squad. He appeared in the films Kiss Them for Me and On a Clear Day You Can See Forever. He was married to actress, Carol Haney.

1926–The College Board administers the first Scholastic Apitude Test (SAT) exam.

1927–Choreographer, Bob Fosse, is born Robert Louis Fosse in Chicago, Illinois. Notable distinctions of Fosse's style included the use of turned-in knees, the famous "Fosse Amoeba," sideways shuffling, rolled shoulders, and jazz hands. With Fred Astaire as an influence, he used props such as bowler hats, canes, and chairs. Among his most popular numbers are Steam Heat (The Pajama Game) and Big Spender (Sweet Charity). He was married to dancer, Joan McCracken, and Broadway actress, Gwen Verdon.

1929–Country singer, (Valerie) June Carter, is born in Maces Spring, Virginia. She was born into country music and performed with the Carter Family from the age of 10, beginning in 1939. She played the guitar, banjo, harmonica, and autoharp, and acted in several films and television shows. President Jimmy Carter was her distant cousin. She was married to honky-tonk singer, Carl Smith, and country singer, Johnny Cash.

1931–Wiley Post and Harold Gatty take off from Roosevelt Field in Long Island, New York, in an attempt to circumnavigate the world in a single-engine plane.

1937–Niki Sullivan, guitarist for The Crickets, is born in South Gate, California. He was one of the three original members of Buddy Holly's backing band, and although he lost interest within a year or two of his involvement, his guitar playing was an integral part of Holly's early success. He performed on 27 of the 32 songs Holly recorded over his brief career. After their appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show on December 1, 1957, the group briefly went on hiatus to plan their next recordings. In early 1958, Sullivan formally announced that he had left the band for good: exactly why he chose to do so remains in debate today. He and Holly were related third cousins, but it is not known whether they were aware of that fact.

1938–The Civil Aeronautics Authority is established.

1938–Marineland opens in Florida.

1939–The U.S. Congress establishes the U.S. Coast Guard Reserve as uniformed volunteer units supporting the U.S. Coast Guard.

1940–Adolf Hitler goes on a three-hour tour of the architecture of Paris, France, with architect Albert Speer and sculptor Arno Breker in his only visit to the city.

1940–Singer-actor, Adam Faith, is born Terence Nelhams-Wright in Acton, London, England. Faith became one of Britain's significant early pop stars. At the time, he was distinctive for his hiccuping glottal stops and exaggerated pronunciation. What Do You Want? was the first number one hit for Parlophone, with Faith being the only pop act on the label. He appeared in the films Never Let Go, Wild for Kicks, What a Whopper, Mix Me a Person, Stardust, Yesterday’s Hero, Foxes, and McVicar.

1940–Artist, Stuart Sutcliffe, is born in Edinburgh, Scotland. He became a good friend of John Lennon's upon meeting him at art college, and Lennon soon persuaded Stu to become of member of his band. Although he went along on the group’s first trip to Hamburg, Germany, Stu didn’t fair well as bass player with The Beatles, and he left the group in 1961, opting to remain in Germany with his girlfriend Astrid Kirchherr. After 50 years, Sutcliffe’s work is still shown in art galleries around the world. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame opened an exhibit on the life and work of Stuart Sutcliffe in 2001.

1941–The Lithuanian Activist Front declares independence from the Soviet Union and forms the Provisional Government of Lithuania. It doesn’t last long, as the Nazis will occupy Lithuania a few weeks later.

1942–The first selections for the gas chamber at Auschwitz take place on a train full of Jews from Paris, France.

1942–Germany's latest fighter aircraft, a Focke-Wulf Fw 190, is captured intact when it mistakenly lands at RAF Pembrey in Wales.

1943–The British destroyers, HMS Eclipse and HMS Laforey, sink the Italian submarine, Ascianghi, in the Mediterranean after she torpedoes the cruiser HMS Newfoundland.

1943–Internet pioneer, Vint Cerf, is born Vinton Gray Cerf in New Haven, Connecticut. He is recognized as one of "the fathers of the Internet," sharing this title with TCP/IP co-inventor, Bob Kahn, and packet switching inventors, Paul Baran and Donald Davies, among others. Cerf was instrumental in the funding and formation of ICANN from the start. He waited in the wings for a year before he stepped forward to join the ICANN Board, eventually becoming Chairman. He was elected as the President of the Association for Computing Machinery in May 2012, and in August 2013, he joined the Council on CyberSecurity's Board of Advisors. His contributions have been acknowledged with honorary degrees and awards that include the National Medal of Technology, the Turing Award, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Marconi Prize, and membership in the National Academy of Engineering.

1944–Four tornadoes strike Appalachia, killing 153 people.

1946–The National Democratic Front wins a landslide victory in the municipal elections in French India.

1946–An earthquake strikes Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada.

1946–Actor, Ted Shackelford, is born Theodore Tillman Shackelford, III in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. He is best known for the role of Gary Ewing on the TV series Knots Landing.

1947–The U.S. Senate follows the U.S. House of Representatives in overriding President Harry Truman's veto of the Taft-Hartley Act.

1947–Actor, Bryan (Neathway) Brown, is born in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. He appeared in the films Newsfront, Palm Beach, Breaker Morant, Blood Money, Give My Regards to Broad Street, Parker, F/X, Tai-Pan, The Good Wife, Cocktail, Gorillas in the Mist, Blood Oath, Dear Claudia, Risk, Along Came Polly, and Australia. He was married to actress, Rachel Ward.

1948–Clarence Thomas, 108th U.S. Supreme Court Justice, is born in Savannah, Georgia.

1955–Walt Disney's animated film Lady & the Tramp is released.

1956–Gamal Abdel Nasser is elected President of Egypt.

1956–The French National Assembly takes the first step in creating the French Community by passing the Loi Cadre, transferring a number of powers from Paris, France, to elected territorial governments in French West Africa.

1957–Actress, Frances (Louise) McDormand, is born in Chicago, Illinois. She appeared in the films Blood Simple, Raising Arizona, Mississippi Burning, Chattahoochee, Miller’s Crossing, Darkman, The Butcher’s Wife, Short Cuts, Fargo, Primal Fear, Lone Star, Wonder Boys, Almost Famous, Laurel Canyon, North Country, Friends with Money, Miss Pettigrew Lives for a Day, and Promised Land. She was married to film director, Joel Cohen.

1958–The Dutch Reformed Church accepts female ministers.

1959–Convicted “Manhattan Project” spy, Klaus Fuchs, is released after only nine years in prison and allowed to emigrate to Dresden, East Germany, where he resumes a scientific career.

1959–A fire in a resort hotel in Stalheim, Norway, kills 34 people.

1960–The U.S. Food and Drug Administration declares Enovid to be the first officially approved combined oral contraceptive pill in the world.

1961–The Antarctic Treaty, which sets aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve and bans military activity on the continent, comes into force.

1964–Arthur Melin, of the Wham-O company, patents the hula hoop.

1966–The case of Miranda v. Arizona establishes the right of the accused to have their rights explained to them upon arrest.

1967–President Lyndon B. Johnson meets with Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin in Glassboro, New Jersey, for the three-day Glassboro Summit Conference.

1969–Warren E. Burger is sworn in as Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court by retiring Chief Justice Earl Warren.

1969–IBM announces that effective January 1970 it will price its software and services separately from hardware, thus creating the modern software industry.

1969–Joe Frazier defeats Jerry Quarry for the Heavyweight Boxing Championship.

1971–At his Tittenhurst Park recording studio in Ascot, England, John Lennon begins recording tracks for his next album Imagine. This, as with most of John and Yoko’s activities during the 1970s, is captured on 16mm color film. A documentary on the making of the Imagine album, called Working Class Hero, is proposed but never released. However, some of the footage is used in the 1988 documentary film Imagine: John Lennon. It wouldn’t be until 2000, that more of the footage would be released as a new documentary video called Gimme Some Truth. This period of recording also produces tracks for Yoko’s album Fly. To promote both the Imagine and Fly albums, John and Yoko produce, from 40,000 feet of film, a 70-minute film entitled Imagine, which features songs from both albums on its soundtrack.

1972–President Richard M. Nixon and White House Chief of Staff, H. R. Haldeman, are taped talking about using the C.I.A. to obstruct the F.B.I.'s investigation into the Watergate break-ins.

1972–President Richard M. Nixon and White House Chief of Staff, H.R. Haldeman, are taped talking about using the CIA to obstruct the FBI's investigation into the Watergate break-ins.

1972–Title IX of the U.S. Civil Rights Act of 1964 is amended to prohibit sexual discrimination to any educational program receiving federal funds.

1973–A fire at a house in Hull, England, which kills a six-year-old boy is passed off as an accident. It later emerges as the first of 26 deaths by fire caused over the next seven years by arsonist, Peter Dinsdale.

1975–While performing in Vancouver, Canada, on his “Welcome to My Nightmare” tour, Alice Cooper falls from the stage, suffering six broken ribs.

1976–Paul McCartney and Wings complete a tour of the U.S. with their final performance at the Forum in Los Angeles, California. Ringo Starr appears on stage during the group's final number. McCartney wouldn't tour America again for another 13 years.

1979–The Knack release the hit My Sharona.

1980–The Heat Wave of 1980 begins. It will prove to be one of the most devastating natural disasters in U.S. history. Starting on this date through September, temperatures of over 90° prevailed throughout most of the Midwestern and Southern Plains states. The high pressure system causing the heat wave also created a cap effect which blocked thunderstorms from developing. This led to exceptional drought conditions. The heat wave caused over 1,700 deaths. Due to the extreme drought conditions, agricultural damage exceeded $55 billion.

1980–Varahagiri Venkata Giri, fourth President of India, dies of a heart attack in Madras, Tamil Nadu, India (present-day Chennai), at age 85.

1982–Chinese American, Vincent Chin, dies in a coma after being beaten in Highland Park, Michigan, on June 19th, by two auto workers who had mistaken him for Japanese. They were angry about the success of Japanese auto companies.

1985–A terrorist bomb aboard Air India Flight 182 brings the plane down off the coast of Ireland, killing all 329 people aboard.

1990–Gary Busey, who played Buddy Holly in the movie The Buddy Holly Story, buys one of the legendary rocker's guitars for $242,200 at an auction in New York.

1992–The FBI loses another round of its battle to prevent the disclosure of its final secret files on John Lennon. The Supreme Court sets a September 11th deadline for the handover. When the files are finally released to writer, Jon Weiner, he discovers that the government’s illegal surveillance of Lennon in the 1970s continued several years after he dropped his political campaigns.

1993–Lorena Gallo Bobbitt cuts off husband John Wayne Bobbitt's penis and throws it out the window of her car as she drives away from the scene of the crime.

1995–Biologist, Jonas Salk, creator of the first polio vaccine, dies of heart failure in La Jolla, California, at age 80. Until 1957, when the Salk vaccine was introduced, polio was considered one of the most frightening public health problems in the world. In postwar America, annual epidemics were increasingly devastating. According to a 2009 PBS documentary, "Apart from the atomic bomb, America's greatest fear was polio." Salk’s sole focus had been to develop a safe and effective vaccine as rapidly as possible, with no interest in personal profit. When asked who owned the patent to it, Salk said, "There is no patent. Could you patent the Sun?"

1996–Angelo John Novarese, record company founder, dies at age 72.

1997–Educator and activist, Betty Shabazz, dies from burn injuries in the Bronx, New York, at age 63. Her grandson, Malcolm Shabazz, set a fire in her apartment and she suffered burns over 80% of her body, remaining in intensive care for three weeks. She underwent five skin-replacement operations, as doctors struggled to replace damaged skin and save her life. Malcolm Shabazz was sentenced to 18 months in juvenile detention for manslaughter and arson.

1998–Actress, Maureen O'Sullivan, dies of complications from heart surgery in Scottsdale, Arizona, at age 87. She appeared in the films Tarzan the Ape Man, Strange Interlude, Tugboat Annie, The Thin Man, The Barretts of Wimpole Street, David Copperfield, Anna Karenina, A Day at the Races, Pride and Prejudice, The Tall T, Hannah and Her Sisters, and Peggy Sue Got Married.

2001–A 8.4 earthquake shakes coastal Peru. A destructive tsunami follows, leaving at least 74 people dead, and 2,687 others injured.

2001–Yvonne Dionne, one of the Canadian Dionne quintuplets, dies at age 67.

2005–The 59th NBA Championship: The San Antonio Spurs beat the Detroit Pistons, 4 games to 3.

2005–Journalist and author, Shana Alexander, dies of cancer in Hermosa Beach, California, at age 79. Although she became the first woman staff writer and columnist for Life magazine, she was best known for her participation in the "Point-Counterpoint" debate segments of the TV news show, 60 Minutes, with conservative James J. Kilpatrick.

2006–Television producer, Aaron Spelling, dies from complications of a stroke in Los Angeles, California, at age 83. As of 2009, Spelling, through his production company Spelling Television, holds the record as the most prolific television writer and producer in U.S. television history, with 218 producer and executive producer credits. He TV series include Burke’s Law, Honey West, The Mod Squad, The Rookies, Starsky and Hutch, Family, Vega$, Charlie’s Angels, Fantasy Island, Hart to Hart, T.J. Hooker, The Love Boat, Dynasty, Melrose Place, and Beverly Hills, 90210.

2009–TV personality, Ed McMahon, dies of natural causes in Los Angeles, California, at age 86. He is best known for his work on television as Johnny Carson's sidekick, announcer, and second banana on The Tonight Show from 1962 through 1992. He also hosted the original version of the talent show Star Search from 1983 to 1995.

2010–Peter Quaife, bass player for The Kinks, dies of kidney failure in Copenhagen, Denmark, at age 66. The group’s hits include You Really Got Me and All Day and All of the Night.

2011–Actor, Peter Falk, dies of pneumonia in Beverly Hills, California, at age 83. He had been suffereing from Alzheimer's disease. He is best known for his starring role in the TV detective series Columbo. He appeared in the films Murder Inc., Pocketful of Miracles, Pressure Point, The Balcony, It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World, Robin and the 7 Hoods, The Great Race, Luv, A Hatful of Rain, Machine Gun McCain, Husbands, A Woman Under the Influence, Murder by Death, Opening Night, The Brink’s Job, Vibes, Cookie, and The Sunshine Boys.

2012–Ashton Eaton breaks the decathlon world record at the U.S. Olympic Trials.

2012–Seventy-six monks are hospitalized in Thailand, following an attack by a swarm of bees.

2012–Frank Chee Willeto, fourth Vice President of the Navajo Nation, dies in Pueblo Pintado, New Mexico, at age 87. He was an American politician and Navajo code talker during World War II.

2013–Nik Wallenda, of The Great Wallendas, becomes the first man to successfully walk across the Grand Canyon on a tight rope.

2013–Sixteen militants storm a high-altitude mountaineering base camp near Nanga Parbat in Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, killing 10 climbers and a local guide.

2013–Soul singer, Bobby “Blue” Bland, dies of an ongoing illness in Germantown, Tennessee, at age 83. He was sometimes referred to as the "Lion of the Blues" and the "Sinatra of the Blues." His biggest hit was Turn On Your Love Light.

2013–Writer and screenwriter, Richard (Burton) Matheson, dies in Los Angeles, California, at age 87. His books include I Am Legend, The Shrinking Man, A Stir of Echoes, The Comedy of Terrors, Hell House, and What Dreams May Come. His films include The Incredible Shrinking Man, Beat Generation, Master of the World, Burn Witch Burn, Tales of Terror, The Last Man on Earth, The Omega Man, and Somewhere in Time.

2014–The last of Syria's declared chemical weapons are shipped out for destruction.

2015–Actor, Dick Van Patten, dies from complications of diabetes in Santa Monica, California, at age 86. He is best known for the role of Tom Bradford on the TV comedy-drama Eight Is Enough. He was seen on many other TV shows, including Love, American Style, Medical Center, The Streets of San Francisco, The Rookies, Barnaby Jones, The Six Million Dollar Man, and The Love Boat. He appeared in the films Charly, Zachariah, Joe Kidd, Dirty Little Billy, Soylent Green, Westworld, Superdad, Freaky Friday, High Anxiety, Spaceballs, and Robin Hood: Men in Tights.

2016–A tornado, accompanied by heavy rainfall and hailstones, kills at least 78 people and injures 500 others in the eastern Chinese province of Jiangsu.


PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Pharaoh Ptolemy XV of Egypt; Joséphine de Beauharnais; Banff National Park; Li Xiannian, President of China; the Scholastic Apitude Test (SAT); Buddy Holly and The Crickets; Stuart Sutcliffe; Ted Shackelford; Frances McDormand; the Wham-O hula hoop; John Lennon in his Tittenhurst Park recording studio in Ascot, England; My Sharona by The Knack; Gary Busey as Buddy Holly; Jonas Salk; Maureen O'Sullivan; Ed McMahon and Johnny Carson on The Tonight Show; and Bobby "Blue" Bland.

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