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1989–John Lennon's 1965 four-door Bentley is auctioned. The Rolls Royce Phantom V had a psychedelic paint job, purple leather interior, pink carpet, and purple-green paisley curtains. The auto was originally black, but Lennon had the car re-painted and re-upholstered in 1967, provoking a denouncement in the British press from a traffic expert who asserted that the car's "startling appearance" posed a traffic hazard.

533–A Byzantine expeditionary fleet, under Belisarius, sails from Constantinople to attack the Vandals in Africa, via Greece and Sicily.

590–Pope Martin I is born Martinos near Todi, Umbria, Byzantine Empire. He is considered a saint and martyr by the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.

870–Al-Muhtadi, Muslim caliph, dies at age 38. His reign lasted less than a year: after some disagreements and conspiracies, he was killed by the Turks,

1002–Pope Leo IX, (1049-1054), is born Bruno von Eguisheim-Dagsburg in Eguisheim, Alsace, Duchy of Swabia, Holy Roman Empire.

1305–Wenceslaus II of Bohemia dies of tuberculosis in Prague, Bohemia, at age 33. He was King of Bohemia (1278-1305), Duke of Cracow (1291-1305), and King of Poland (1300-1305).

1307–Kulug Khan is enthroned as Khagan of the Mongols and Wuzong of the Yuan.

1359–Erik Magnusson, King of Sweden, dies of the Black Death.

1377–Edward III, King of England (1327-1377), dies of a stroke at Sheen Palace, Richmond, London, England, at age 64.

1527–Statesman, Niccolo Machiavelli, dies in Florence, Republic of Florence, at age 57. He was a historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, and writer based in Florence during the Renaissance. He is heralded as one of the founders of modern political science and political ethics. "Machiavellianism" is a widely used negative term to characterize unscrupulous politicians of the sort Machiavelli described in his literary masterpiece The Prince. The book itself gained enormous notoriety and wide readership because most people assumed he was teaching and endorsing evil and immoral behavior. The term "Machiavellian" is associated with deceit, deviousness, ambition, and brutality.

1528–Maria of Austria, Holy Roman Empress, is born in Madrid, Spain.

1529–French forces are driven out of northern Italy by Spain at the Battle of Landriano during the War of the League of Cognac.

1582–Oda Nobunaga, the most powerful of the Japanese daimyo, is forced to commit suicide by his own general, Akechi Mitsuhide.

1621–Twenty-seven Czech noblemen are executed on the Old Town Square in Prague as a consequence of the Battle of White Mountain.

1631–Admiral and explorer, John Smith, dies in London, England, at age 51. He played an important part in the establishment of Jamestown, the first permanent English settlement in North America. He was a leader of the Virginia Colony between September 1608 and August 1609, and led an exploration along the rivers of Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay. He was the first English explorer to map the Chesapeake Bay area and New England.

1639–Colonial clergyman, Increase Mather, is born in Dorchester, Massachusetts Bay Colony. He published nearly 100 books, and is credited with helping end executions for witchcraft in colonial America.

1734–In Montreal, New France, a slave known by the French name of Marie-Joseph Angélique is put to death, having been convicted of setting the fire that destroyed much of the city.

1749–Halifax, Nova Scotia, is founded.

1788–New Hampshire becomes the ninth state in the United States of America.

1791–King Louis XVI of France, his wife, Marie Antoinette, and their immediate family begin the “Flight to Varennes” during the French Revolution. It was an unsuccessful attempt to escape from Paris, in order to initiate a counter-revolution at the head of loyal troops under royalist officers. They only got as far as the small town of Varennes, where they were arrested after having been recognized at their previous stop in Sainte-Menehould. The incident was a turning point after which popular hostility towards the French monarchy as an institution, as well as towards the king and queen as individuals, became much more pronounced. The king's attempted flight provoked the charges of treason which ultimately led to his execution in 1793.

1798–The British Army defeats Irish rebels at the Battle of Vinegar Hill.

1824–In the Greek War of Independence, Egyptian forces capture Psara in the Aegean Sea.

1826–Maniots defeat Egyptians, under Ibrahim Pasha, in the Battle of Vergas.

1834–Cyrus Hall McCormick patents a reaping machine.

1848–In the Wallachian Revolution, Ion Heliade Radulescu and Christian Tell issue the Proclamation of Islaz and create a new republican government.

1850–Author and illustrator, Daniel Carter Beard, is born in Cincinnati, Ohio. He founded the Boy Scouts of America.

1854–The first Victoria Cross is awarded during the bombardment of Bomarsund in the Aland Islands.

1876–Antonio López de Santa Anna, eighth President of Mexico, dies in Mexico City, Mexico, at age 82.

1877–The Molly Maguires, 10 Irish immigrants convicted of murder, are hung at Schuylkill County Prison and Carbon County Prison in Pennsylvania.

1879–F.W. Woolworth opens his first store.

1893–The first Ferris wheel begins operation at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois.

1893–Leland Stanford, founder of Stanford University, dies of heart failure in Palo Alto, California, at age 69.

1898–Guam becomes a U.S. territory.

1900–China formally declares war on the United States, Britain, Germany, France, and Japan, as an edict issued from the Empress Dowager Cixi.

1903–Caricaturist, Al Hirschfield, is born in St. Louis, Missouri. Hirschfeld's style was unique, and he is considered to be one of the most important figures in contemporary drawing and caricature, having influenced countless artists, illustrators, and cartoonists. His caricatures are almost always drawings of pure line in black ink, into which Hirschfeld dipped not a pen, but a genuine crow’s quill. His black and white art was seen in The New York Herald Tribune and The New York Times. Later, Hirschfeld’s full-color paintings were commissioned for the covers of magazines such as TV Guide, Life, Look, The New York Times Magazine, and Seventeen.

1905–Novelist, playwright, and philosopher, Jean-Paul Sartre, is born in Paris, France. He spent a year as a prisoner of war during World War II, and was one of the French intellectuals who openly resisted Nazi occupation of France. He is best known for his philosophic work Being and Nothingness, and his novel Nausea. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1964, but he declined to accept it, on the grounds that he did not wish to be “transformed into an institution.”

1908–Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, Russian composer, dies of angina at his Lubensk estate near Luga (present-day Plyussky District of Pskov Oblast), at age 64. He was a member of the group of composers known as The Five. His best-known orchestral compositions (Capriccio Espagnol, Russian Easter Festival Overture, and the symphonic suite Scheherazade) are staples of the classical music repertoire, along with suites and excerpts from some of his 15 operas.

1912–Novelist, Mary (Therese) McCarthy, is born in Seattle, Washington. Her books inlude The Company She Keeps, The Oasis, and The Group.

1915–The U.S. Supreme Court hands down its decision in Guinn v. United States, striking down Oklahoma grandfather clause legislation that had the effect of denying blacks the right to vote.

1919–During the Winnipeg General Strike, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police fire a volley into a crowd of unemployed war veterans, killing two of them.

1919–Admiral Ludwig von Reuter scuttles the German fleet in Scapa Flow, Orkney. The nine sailors killed are the last casualties of World War I.

1919–Architect, Paolo Soleri, is born in Turin, Italy. He established the educational Cosanti Foundation. The Cosanti Foundation's major project, designed by Soleri, is Arcosanti, a community planned for 5,000 people, which has been in construction since 1970. Located near Cordes Junction, Arizona (about 70 north of Phoenix and visible from Interstate I-17), the project intends to provide a model demonstrating Soleri's concept of "Arcology," architecture coherent with ecology. Since 1970, over 6,000 people have participated in Arcosanti's construction. Their international affiliation group is called the Arcosanti Alumni Network.

1921–Actress, Judy Holliday, is born Judith Tuvim in New York, New York. She appeared in the films Adam’s Rib, On the Town, Born Yesterday, The Marrying Kind, It Should Happen to You, Phffft!, The Solid Gold Cadillac, and Bells Are Ringing. She was married to classical music academic, David Oppenheim.

1921–Actress, Jane Russell, is born Ernestine Jane Geraldine Russell in Bemidji, Minnesota. She was one of Hollywood's leading sex symbols in the 1940s and 1950s. Howard Hughes starred her in his film, The Outlaw, which was considered quite controversial at the time. She appeared in the films The Paleface, His Kind of Woman, The Las Vegas Story, Macao, Road to Bali, Gentleman Prefer Blondes, The Tall Men, Gentlemen Marry Brunettes, The Revolt of Mamie Stover, and Born Losers.

1925–Actress, (Lois) Maureen Stapleton, is born in Troy, New York. She starred in the TV movie The Queen of the Stardust Ballroom. She appeared in the films Lonelyhearts, The Fugitive Kind, Bye Bye Birdie, Airport, Plaza Suite, Summer of ‘42, Interiors, Lost and Found, Reds, The Fan, Johnny Dangerously, Cocoon, Heartburn, The Money Pit, Nuts, and Made in Heaven. Maureen was not, as commonly believed, closely related to the actress, Jean Stapleton. Genealogists have determined that the pair were fourth cousins through Jean's maternal grandmother and Maureen's paternal grandmother.

1929–An agreement brokered by U.S. Ambassador Dwight Whitney Morrow ends the Cristero War in Mexico.

1930–One-year conscription (or drafting) comes into force in France.

1932–Jack Sharkey defeats Max Schmeling in Round 15 for the Heavyweight Boxing Championship.

1932–Composer, Lalo Schifrin, is born Boris Claudio Schifrin in Buenos Aires, Argentina. He is best known for his film and TV scores, such as the Theme from Mission: Impossible. His film scores include Murderer’s Row, Cool Hand Luke, Bullitt, Dirty Harry, The Beguiled, THX 138, Enter the Dragon, The Eagle Has Landed, The Amityville Horror, Brubaker, and The Competition.

1933–Actor, Bernie Kopell, is born in New York, New York. He appeared on many TV shows, among them Get Smart, That Girl, and The Love Boat.

1935–Actor, Monte Markham, is born in Manatee County, Florida. He was seen in numerous TV shows, including Mission: Impossible, The Mod Squad, Hogan’s Heroes, Love, American Style, The Six Million Dollar Man, and Police Woman. He appeared in the films Hour of the Gun, Project X, Guns of the Magnificent Seven, One Is a Lonely Number, Ginger in the Morning, Midway, Airport ‘77, Separate Ways, Jake Speed, and Neon City.

1935–Native American, Alice Brown Davis, dies in Wewoka, Oklahoma, at age 82. She was the first female Principal Chief of the Seminole Tribe of Oklahoma, and served from 1922-1935, appointed by President Warren G. Harding. She was of Seminole (Tiger Clan) and Scots descent.

1937–Businessman and philanthropist, Jon (Meade) Huntsman, is born in Blackfoot, Idaho. He was the founder and executive chairman of Huntsman Corporation, a global manufacturer and marketer of specialty chemicals. Huntsman plastics are used in a wide variety of familiar objects, including McDonald's former clamshell burger containers. Huntsman Corporation also manufactures a wide variety of organic and inorganic chemicals that include polyurethanes, textiles, and pigments.

1938, Actor, Ron Ely, is born Ronald Pierce Ely in Hereford, Texas. He starred in the TV series Tarzan, and was seen in many other shows, including Father Knows Best, Playhouse 90, The Millionaire, Thriller, and Marcus Welby, M.D. He appeared in the films South Pacific, The Fiend Who Walked the West, The Remarkable Mr. Pennypacker, Night of the Grizzly, Once Before I Die, and Doc Savage: The Man of Bronze.

1939–Doctors reveal that Lou Gehrig has amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

1940–The first successful west-to-east navigation of the Northwest Passage begins at Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

1940–Actress, Mariette Hartley, is born Mary Loretta Hartley in Weston, Connecticut. She was seen in many TV shows, including Dr. Kildare, Ben Casey, The Twilight Zone, The Virginian, My Three Sons, Peyton Place, Death Valley Days, Star Trek, The Bob Nwheart Show, The Streets of San Francisco, Columbo, and The Rockfore Files. She appeared in the films Ride the High Country, Marnie, Marooned, Skyjacked, O’Hara’s Wife, 1969, and Encino Man.

1941–Actor, Lyman Ward, is born in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. He appeared in the films The Happy Hooker Goes Hollywood, Whose Life Is It Anyway?, Love Letters, Moscow on the Hudson, Protocol, Creature, A Nightmare on Elm Street 2: Freddy's Revenge, Ferris Bueller's Day Off, The Beverly Hillbillies, and Independence Day. He was married to actress, Cindy Pickett.

1942–A Japanese submarine surfaces near the Columbia River in Oregon, firing 17 shells at nearby Fort Stevens. This is one of a handful of attacks by Japan against the United States mainland.

1942–In World War II, Tobruk falls to Italian and German forces.

1944–Ray Davies, of The Kinks, is born Raymond Douglas Davies in Muswell Hill, London, England. The group had hits with You Really Got Me, All Day and All of the Night, Tired of Waiting For You, and Lola. Davies went on to a successful solo career. The original group was inducted into The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1990. His brother is Davie Davies, also of The Kinks.

1944–Film director, Tony Scott, is born Anthony David Leighton Scott in Tynemouth, Northumberland, England. His films include The Hunger, Top Gun, Beverly Hills Cop II, Revenge, Days of Thunder, The Last Boy Scout, True Romance, Crimson Tide, The Fan, and Enemy of the State. His brother is film director, Ridley Scott.

1945–In World War II, the Battle of Okinawa ends when the organized resistance of Imperial Japanese Army forces collapses in the Mabuni area on the southern tip of the main island.

1946–Singer, Brenda Holloway, is born in Atascadero, California. Her hits include Every Little Bit Hurts, I’ll Always Love You, and When I’m Gone.

1947–Actress, Meredith (Ann) Baxter, is born in South Pasadena, California. She is best known for her roles of the TV shows Bridget Loves Bernie, Family, and Family Ties. She is also known for her starring role in the TV movies A Woman Scorned: The Betty Broderick Story and Her Final Fury: Betty Broderick The Final Chapter. She appeared in the films Ben, All the President’s Men, Bittersweet Love, Down Will Come Baby, and Paradise Texas. Her mother was actress, Whitney Blake. She was married to actor, David Birney.

1947–Actor, Michael Gross, is born in Chicago, Illinois. He is best known for the role of Steven Keaton on the TV series Family Ties. He appeared in the films Just Tell Me What You Want, Big Business, Tremors, Cool as Ice, 100 Million BC, Psych, and Atlas Shrugged: Part II. Gross is an amateur railroad historian, photographer, modeler, and part-owner in a working railroad, the Santa Fe Southern Railway: a former branch line of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway which operates between Lamy and Santa Fe, New Mexico.

1947–Joey Molland, of Badfinger, is born in Liverpool, England. He joined the group after the band began recording, but played on their “Top 10” hits, including Come and Get It and Day After Day.

1948–Columbia Records begins the first mass production of the 33-1/3 rpm LP.

1948–The first stored computer program is run on Manchester Mark I.

1950–Joey Kramer, of Aerosmith, is born Joseph Michael Kramer in the Bronx, New York. A powerful drummer, Kramer has been known to amuse concertgoers during his drum solos by striking the drums with his arms, legs, toes, elbows, and even his forehead.

1951–Musician, Nils (Hilmer) Lofgren, is born in Chicago, Illinois. Along with his work as a solo artist, he has been a member of Bruce Springsteen's E Street Band since 1984, and is a former member of Crazy Horse.

1952–The Philippine School of Commerce, through a republic act, is converted to Philippine College of Commerce, later to be the Polytechnic University of the Philippines.

1954–Actor, Robert (Joseph) Pastorelli, is born in New Brunswick, New Jersey. He is best known for the role of Eldin Bernecky on the TV series Murphy Brown. He appeared in the films Outrageous Fortune, Beverly Hills Cop II, Memories of Me, Dances with Wolves, Harmful Intent, and Michael.

1954–Engineer, Gideon Sundback, dies of a heart condition in Meadville, Pennsylvania, at age 74. He developed the zipper.

1956–Anti-protons are detected in the atmosphere.

1956–Playwright, Arthur Miller, is called before the House of Un-American Activities Committee. Miller refuses to name names of Communist sympathizers. He wrote The Crucible as a commentary on the dangers of “McCarthyism.”

1957–Ellen Fairclough is sworn in as Canada's first female Cabinet Minister.

1959–Country singer, Kathy Mattea, is born Kathleen Alice Mattea in South Charleston, West Virginia. Since 1983, she has recorded 17 albums and has charted more than 30 singles on the Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks charts.

1963–Cardinal Giovanni Battista Montini is elected as Pope Paul VI.

1964–Civil rights workers, Michael H. Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, and James E. Chaney, disappear in Philadelphia, Mississippi. Their bodies will be found buried in an earthen dam six weeks later. Eight Ku Klux Klan members will later be sent to federal prison on conspiracy charges for the deaths of the three “freedom riders.”

1966–The Beatles are in the recording studio recording, from start to finish, John Lennon's song She Said She Said. The song is reportedly based on a bizarre conversation that Lennon had with actor, Peter Fonda, while John and George Harrison were tripping on LSD in Los Angeles, California. Fonda kept saying “I know what it’s like to be dead,” which troubled Lennon a lot at the time. He kept telling Fonda to “go away.”

1966–Journalist, Gretchen (Elizabeth) Carlson, is born in Anoka, Minnesota. She was crowned the 1989 Miss America while representing her native state of Minnesota. In 2005, Carlson joined Fox News Channel and became the co-host of the morning show, Fox & Friends, along with Steve Doocy and Brian Kilmeade. In 2013, she launched a new program called The Real Story with Gretchen Carlson.

1967–Businessman, Pierre (Morad) Omidyar, is born in Paris, France. He founded eBay, where he served as Chairman from 1998 to 2015. He became a billionaire at the age of 31 with eBay's 1998 initial public offering (IPO).

1968–Influenced by the recent assassination of Robert F. Kennedy, Steve Binder, director of Elvis Presley's upcoming NBC-TV special, asks musical director, Bones Howe, to write a “socially conscious” song for Elvis' big closing number. That afternoon, Howe writes the song If I Can Dream. After hearing it a half-dozen times, Elvis agrees to sing it to end the show.

1970–The Penn Central Transportation Company declares Section 77 bankruptcy.

1970–Politician, Sukarno, the first President of Indonesia, dies of kidney failure in Jakarta, Indonesia, at age 69.

1973–The U.S. Supreme Court rules that community standards should be taken into account in obscenity cases.

1973–Actress, Juliette Lewis, is born in Los Angeles, California. She appeared in the films My Stepmother is an Alien, National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation, Cape Fear, Crooked Hearts, Husbands and Wives, What’s Eating Gilbert Grape?, Romeo Is Bleeding, Kalifornia, Natural Born Killers, The Basketball Diaries, The Evening Star, The Other Sister, Cold Creek Manor, Old School, Starksy & Hutch, and August: Osage County. Lewis launched a career as a solo singer and musician, leading American rock band Juliette and the Licks until 2009, when she went solo and released the album Terra Incognita. Her father was actor, Geoffrey Lewis.

1977–Menachem Begin becomes Israel's sixth Prime Minister.

1980–Musician and musical conductor, Bert Kaempfert, dies suddenly following a stroke in Majorca, Spain, at age 56. A world-renown composer and arranger, Kaempfert had many international hits, including his most popular, Wonderland By Night. Over the years, he revived pop tunes such as Tenderly, Red Roses for a Blue Lady, Three O'Clock in the Morning, and Bye Bye Blues. He was the first person to contract and produce recordings by The Beatles.

1982–The heir presumptive to the British throne, Prince William, is born to Prince Charles and Princess Diana in London, England.

1982–John Hinckley is found not guilty by reason of insanity for the attempted assassination of President Ronald Reagan.

1983–Academic and activist, Edward (Joseph) Snowden, is born in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. He is an American computer professional, former Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) employee, and former contractor for the U.S. government who copied and leaked classified information from the National Security Agency (NSA) in 2013, without prior authorization. His disclosures revealed numerous global surveillance programs, many run by the NSA and the Five Eyes Intelligence Alliance with the cooperation of telecommunication companies and European governments. Snowden came to international attention after stories based on the material appeared in The Guardian and The Washington Post in 2013. A subject of controversy, Snowden has been variously called a hero, a whistleblower, a dissident, a patriot, and a traitor.

1985–Chef, Ettore Boiardi, dies of natural causes in Parma, Ohio, at age 87. He is better known as Chef Boyardee.

1987–Freaks celebrate the 20th anniversary of the “Summer of Love” with a parade through the Haight-Ashbury section of San Francisco, California.

1988–The 42nd NBA Championship: The Los Angeles Lakers beat the Detroit Pistons, 4 games to 3.

1989–The U.S. Supreme Court rules that burning the American flag as a form of political protest is protected by the First Amendment.

1989–John Lennon's 1965 four-door Bentley is auctioned. The Rolls Royce Phantom V had a psychedelic paint job, purple leather interior, pink carpet, and purple-green paisley curtains. The auto was originally black, but Lennon had the car re-painted and re-upholstered in 1967, provoking a denouncement in the British press from a traffic expert who asserted that the car's "startling appearance" posed a traffic hazard.

1989–Actress, Melanie Griffith, and actor, Don Johnson, are married for the second time.

1990–Rock and roller, Little Richard, receives a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

1990–An earthquake in Iran kills 25,000 people.

1990–Singer, June Christy, dies of kidney failure in Sherman Oaks, California, at age 64. She is known for her work in the cool jazz genre and for her silky smooth vocals. Her success as a singer began with The Stan Kenton Orchestra.

1992–Li Xiannian, Chinese President (1983-1988), dies in Beijing, China, at age 82. He rose to prominence in the Communist Party of China in 1976, when Hua Guofeng succeeded Mao Zedong as Chairman of the Communist Party of China. At the height of his career in the 1980s, Li was considered one of the most influential architects of China's economic policy after the Cultural Revolution, and is considered one of the Eight Elders of Communist Party of China.

1994–Rose Totino, the queen of frozen pizza, dies of cancer in St. Louis Park, Minnesota, at age 79. She was co-founder with her husband, Jim Totino, of Totino's Pizzeria and Totino's Finer Foods. They sold the company to Pillsbury in 1975, for about $22 million in Pillsbury stock.

2000–Section 28 (of the Local Government Act 1988), outlawing the promotion of homosexuality in the United Kingdom, is repealed in Scotland with a 99 to 17 vote.

2001–A federal grand jury in Alexandria, Virginia, indicts 13 Saudis and one Lebanese in the 1996 bombing of the Khobar Towers in Saudi Arabia that killed 19 American servicemen.

2001–Actor, Carroll O'Connor, dies of a heart attack in Culver City, California, at age 76. He is best known for the role of Archie Bunker on the TV series All in the Family. He appeared in the films A Fever in the Blood, Parrish, By Loved Possessed, Lonely Are the Brave, Cleopatra, In Harm’s Way, What Did You Do in the War, Daddy? Hawaii, Not with My Wife, You Don't!, Warning Shot, Point Blank, For Love of Ivy, Death of a Gunfighter, Marlowe, Kelly’s Heroes, Doctor’ Wives, and Law and Disorder.

2001–Musician, John Lee Hooker, dies in his sleep in Los Altos, California, at age 83. He rose to prominence performing an electric guitar-style adaptation of Delta blues. His best known songs include Boogie Chillen, Crawling King Snake, Dimples, Boom Boom, and One Bourbon, One Scotch, One Beer.

2003–Playwright, George Axelrod, dies in his sleep in Los Angeles, California, at age 81. He wrote the plays The Seven Year Itch, Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter?, and Goodbye Charlie. He wrote the screenplays for The Seven Year Itch, Bus Stop, Breakfast at Tiffany’s, The Manchurian Candidate, Paris When It Sizzles, Lord Love a Duck, and The Lady Vanishes.

2003–Writer, Leon Marcus Uris, dies of renal failure in Long Island, New York, at age 78. His books include Battle Cry, The Angry Hills, Exodus, Topaz, and QB VII.

2004–SpaceShipOne becomes the first privately funded “spaceplane” to achieve space flight. That same year, it won the $10 million Ansari X Prize and was immediately retired from active service.

2005–Edgar Ray Killen, who had previously been acquitted for the murders of civil rights workers, Michael H. Schwerner, Andrew Goodman, and James E. Chaney, is convicted of manslaughter 41 years later (the case was reopened in 2004).

2006–Pluto's newly discovered moons are officially named Nix and Hydra.

2009–Greenland assumes self-rule.

2012–A boat carrying more than 200 refugees capsizes in the Indian Ocean, between the Indonesian island of Java and Christmas Island, killing 17 people and leaving 70 others missing.

2012–The 66th NBA Championship: The Miami Heat beat the Oklahoma City Thunder, 4 games to 1.

2016–Japan places its military on high alert to be ready to shoot down any missile heading for its territory amid reports of a possible North Korean launch of an intermediate-range missile from its east coast.

2016–Jean-Pierre Bemba, leader of the Movement for the Liberation of the Congo, and a former Congolese Vice President, is sentenced to 18 years in prison by the International Criminal Court for war crimes and sexual violence crimes against humanity in neighboring Central African Republic during 2002 and 2003.

2016–Shanga Hankerson (son of soul singer, Gladys Knight) and his chicken and waffles chain are targeted by the Georgia Department of Revenue, when three Gladys Knight’s Chicken & Waffles restaurants and their corporate headquarters are raided. He is accused of withholding state taxes and stealing more than $650,000 worth of sales, with the total skyrocketing past $1 million after interest and penalties.

2017–More than 50,000 people practice yoga in Lucknow, India, to celebrate International Yoga Day.

2017–In a royal decree, King Salman of Saudi Arabia appoints his son, Mohammad bin Salman Al Saud, as Crown Prince, stripping his nephew, Muhammad bin Nayef, of the title.

2017–The European Space Agency (ESA) approves the PLATO space observatory, which will seek out Earth-like exoplanets.

2018–The United States government releases a “Near-Earth Object Preparedness Plan” for reducing risks of asteroid or comet impacts.

2018–Actor, Peter Fonda, issues an apology for his “inappropriate and vulgar” tweet about the president’s son, Baron Trump, in which he called for him to be “ripped from his mother and put in a cage with pedophiles.” First Lady Melania Trump's communications director, Stephanie Grisham, later confirmed that the Secret Service had been contacted about Fonda's tweet.

2018–Columnist, author, and conservative political commentator, Charles Krauthammer, dies of cancer in Atlanta, Georgia, at age 68.

PHOTOS TOP TO BOTTOM: Niccolo Machiavelli; John Smith; King Louis XVI of France, Marie Antoinette, and their family during the “Flight to Varennes”; the Molly McGuires; Jean-Paul Sartre; architect Paolo Soleri's Arcosanti community; Maureen Stapleton; Monte Markham; Mariette Hartley; Meredith Baxter; the Manchester Mark I computer system; Arthur Miller before the House of Un-American Activities Committee; Elvis Presley singing If I Can Dream; Bert Kaempfert; John Lennon with his original black Rolls Royce; June Christy; Carroll O'Connor, and SpaceShipOne.

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